~The 19-year-old man accused of putting his 2-month-old daughter in a microwave, causing burns to her face and hand, was insane at the time of the incident, his lawyer said Friday.
"This kid has voices talking to him, all kinds of other issues," said attorney Sam Cammack III, who filed notice Wednesday in state district court of the intent to plead insanity in the case.
Joshua Maldin of Arkansas is accused of putting his infant daughter in a hotel room microwave for 10 to 20 seconds. The child suffered third-degree burns to the left side of her face and left hand.
Mauldin faces a charge of injury to a child, causing serious bodily harm. The charge carries a possible prison term of five to 99 years, as well as a fine of up to $10,000.
At the time of the May 10 incident, Mauldin and his wife were moving to Galveston, where he planned to become a preacher. According to a police report, Mauldin said God told him to move to Galveston.
"Josh Mauldin is not an evil person who would ever hurt his child under normal circumstances," Cammack said. "He's a 19-year-old kid who has mental issues."
Under Texas law, a person can be found not guilty by reason of insanity if a jury finds the defendant did not know that his or her actions were wrong.~
re:now science says dinos lived for millions of years with their ancestors/predecesser species
~(AP) Dinosaurs shared the Earth for millions of years with the species that were their ancestors, a new study concludes.
Dinosaurs arose in the Late Triassic, between 235 million and 200 million years ago, and came to dominate the planet in the Jurassic, 200 million to 120 million years ago.
Scientists had thought the dinosaurs rapidly replaced their ancestor species. Indeed, until 2003, when a creature called Silesaurus was discovered in Poland, no dinosaur precursors had been found from the Late Triassic.
Now, researchers report in the journal Science they have evidence from northern New Mexico that dinosaurs and their precursor species coexisted for tens of millions of years.
Matthew T. Carrano, curator of dinosauria at the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History, said there has been a long-standing debate over whether dinosaurs replaced earlier species gradually or suddenly.
"What they have is a snapshot of the transition, and it's clear there is a persistent environment with dinosaurs and these other older animals. So, at least in this place in the southwestern U.S., it was not abrupt," said Carrano, who was not part of the research team.
"Finding dinosaur precursors ... together with dinosaurs tells us something about the pace of changeover. If there was any competition between the precursors and dinosaurs, then it was a very prolonged competition," Randall Irmis, a graduate student at the University of California, Berkeley and co-author of the report, said in a statement.
The team reported finding 1,300 fossil specimens, including several complete bones, at Hayden Quarry at Ghost Ranch, near Abiquiu, N.M., an area made famous through the paintings of Georgia O'Keeffe.
There were no complete skeletons, and researchers are continuing to work at the site.
Their finds included bones from both early dinosaurs and dinosaur precursors as well as remains of crocodile ancestors, fish and amphibians, all dating between 220 million and 210 million years ago.
Included were leg bones of the carnivorous Chindesaurus bryansmalli, a close relative of the Coelophysis, a well-known Triassic dinosaur. They said both walked on two legs, reminiscent of the much later Velociraptor depicted in the film "Jurassic Park."
They also found remains of a Dromomeron romeri, a relative of the 235 million-year-old Argentinian middle Triassic precursor called Lagerpeton. Dromomeron was between three and five feet long, the authors concluded.
Another discovery was an unnamed, four-footed beaked grazer about three times the size of Dromomeron, they said.
The research was funded by the National Geographic Society, the Theodore Roosevelt Memorial Fund and the Jurassic Foundation. ~
re:human sequences keep popping up in neandertal genome
~The authors recognize that more work needs to be done to sort out some remaining discrepancies, but the new analysis strongly suggests that a large portion of the original data was the result of contamination. We know less about the Neanderthals than we thought we did. Still, the analysis suggests that there is real Neanderthal sequence
among the contaminants, and suggests a fairly simple analysis may help us extract it. It's a great example of how science can self-correct. ~
(even if it was all contaminants,,it's too late everyone allready thinks we are their descendents)
re:claims that dna sequence related to speech in humans found in neandertal genome
~Researchers from Harvard Medical School and the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard matched sequences of the human genome to the same regions of the genetic code of chimpanzees and several other primate species. DNA is made up of sequences of chemical bases, labeled A, T, G, and C. They compared the codes, letter by letter, and noted where there was a divergence.
Based on an estimated relative mutation rate, they calculated how long it would take to accrue the mutations and determined that millions of years of genetic divergence led to an initial speciation around 6.3 million years ago. From start to finish, complete speciation spanned a much longer time range than in any other modern apes. From start to finish, complete speciation spanned a much longer time range than in any other modern apes.
"The variation is huge," said study lead author Nick Patterson of the Broad Institute. "There are regions of the genome that don't appear to be much more than 5 million years old and there are regions that appear to be 4 million years older than that. The ancestral time over which humans and chimpanzees speciated, where there's no more gene flow, covers 4 million years."
X marks the spot
The team also observed that humans and chimps are very similar on the X chromosome, sometimes referred to as the female sex chromosome. The average age of the X chromosome in humans is about 1.2 million years "younger" than the rest of the chromosomes, and the final change occurred around 5.4 million years ago.~
~This suggests that after the first speciation at 6.3 million years in the past, early human ancestors may have lived and reproduced with ancestral chimps to produce hybrid primates.
"This would help explain why divergence on X between humans and chimps is so low," Patterson told LiveScience.
Mixing and matching genetic information from two species doesn't always work out well, and hybrid species often have trouble reproducing. The problem generally arises from differences on the X chromosomes.
"In a situation where it's unfavorable to have one X from one species and one from the other, which happens as hybrids reproduce among themselves, you get powerful selection for the good combination," Patterson said. "The X chromosome will fix out and everyone will have the same X."
Patterson explains one possibility for how this could have happened: The initial split occurred around 6.3 million years ago. Sometime after, the descendents of the earliest known human ancestor—the 6.5 to 7.5-million-year-old "Toumai," a biped that probably didn't look much different than chimpanzee ancestors—mated with ancestral chimps and created a hybrid species.
Scientists can't say how long the hybridization carried on, but the final speciation occurred around 5.3 million years ago, possibly because the two species' genetic coded were too different to mix or the animals were simply physically unappealing to each other.
"If that occurred, they might have been compatible enough on X that it would fix out to one species or another," Patterson said. "As it happened, it fixed to chimps, but it could have gone the other way."
This is just one possible explanation for the gap in speciation time, Patterson said, and is not meant to be interpreted as the full answer. Researchers at the Broad Institute are currently working on sequencing gorilla and other primate genomes and searching for similar patterns of evolution to help better tell the whole story.
re:humans are more diff from other 'primate' family members than any other(special)
~Neanderthals are often thought of as the stray branch in the human family tree, but research now suggests the modern human is likely the odd man out.
"What people tend to do is draw a line from our ancestors straight to ourselves, and any group that doesn't seem to fit on that line is divergent, distinct, unusual, strange," researcher Erik Trinkaus, an anthropologist at Washington University in St. Louis, told LiveScience today. "But in terms of evolution of our family tree, the genus Homo, we're the outliers and the Neanderthals are more toward the core."
Humans are not at the inevitable end of a sequence, Trinkaus said. "It just happens that we happen to be alive today and Neanderthals are not."
Trinkaus spent decades examining fossil skeletons and over time realized that maybe researchers looked at Neanderthals the wrong way. Over the last two years, he systematically combed through fossils, comparing Neanderthal and modern human skull, jaw, tooth, arm, leg traits with those of the earliest members of the genus Homo in terms of their shape.
"I wanted to see to what extent Neanderthals are derived, that is distinct, from the ancestral form. I also wanted to see the extent to which modern humans are derived relative to the ancestral form," Trinkaus said.
Trinkaus focused on skeletal features that seemed most strongly linked to genetics, as opposed to any traits that might get influenced by lifestyle, environment or wear and tear.
When compared with our common ancestors, Trinkaus discovered modern humans have roughly twice as many uniquely distinct traits as Neanderthals. In other words, Neanderthals are more like the other members of our family tree than modern humans are.
"In the broader sweep of human evolution, the more unusual group is not Neanderthals, whom we tend to look at as strange, weird and unusual, but it's us, modern humans," Trinkaus said.
Modern humans, for example, are the only members of our family tree who lack brow ridges, Trinkaus said. "We are the only ones who have seriously shortened faces. We are the only ones with very reduced internal nasal cavities. We also have a number of detailed features of the limb skeleton that are unique."
~Sawyer said the replacement bones are remarkably similar in size to La Ferrassie man - most were off by only a few millimeters.
Still, as the scientists pieced together the bones, something didn't look quite right. A rotund, bell-shaped torso, produced by a flared lower ribcage, and a pelvic region that looked slightly wide and feminine, began to form in front of their eyes.
"The biggest surprise by all means is that they have a rib cage radically different than a modern human's rib cage," said Sawyer. "As we stood back, we noticed one interesting thing was that these are kind of a short, squat people. These guys had no waist at all - they were compact, dwarfy-like beings."
Other bits and replacement pieces, mostly the ends of bones, were collected from half a dozen other Neanderthals. The remaining gaps were filled in with reconstructed human bones.
The Big Picture
The finished product is "like Frankenstein," Sawyer said.
Even though the reconstructed fossil is made up of both Neanderthal and human bones, Sawyer doesn't believe that modern humans could have evolved from Neanderthals based on the pelvic and torso discrepancies between the two species.
Evolutionary side road
"There is no way that modern humans, I believe, could have evolved from a species like Neanderthal," Sawyer said. "They're certainly a cousin - they're human - but they're one of those strange little offshoots."
The reconstructed Neanderthal skeleton is currently on display at the Dolan DNA Learning Center in Cold Spring Harbor, NY. It will eventually go on permanent display at the American Museum of Natural History.
This research will be published in the March 11 issue of the Anatomical Record Part B: The New Anatomist.
Neanderthals were a relative of homo sapiens that co-inhabited Europe and parts of western Asia with hum from about 120,000 to 29,000 years ago. They were well adapted to the cold and were very muscular -- good traits for hunting large animals.
"They had very strong hands," Sawyer said. "If you shook hands with one, he would turn your hand to pulp."
re:mans age reassessed
~The new results, though, are regarded as far more robust. They depend on the known decay rate of radioactive atoms of potassium-40 into the gas argon-40 in feldspar mineral crystals.
These crystals were retrieved from chunks of pumice in volcanic ash layers above and below the skulls.
They suggested the specimens must be between 104,000 and 196,000 years old - but with some additional climate evidence on ancient flooding in the region, the team was able to show the Omo finds were actually very close to the 196,000-year mark.
Dr Chris Stringer, from London's Natural History Museum, worked on the skulls more than 20 years ago. He told BBC News: "I was of the opinion that Omo I was a modern human - Omo II seemed much more primitive. So, from my point of view I thought Omo II might be older than Omo I.
"But it seems that they are about the same age and that shows that the populations in Africa at that time were very variable. They show different mixtures of primitive and modern characteristics."
The previous oldest Homo sapiens skulls were uncovered in sediments near a village called Herto in the Afar region in the east of Ethiopia. These were dated to between 154,000 and 160,000 years old.
To be human
Although researchers are pushing at the evolutionary base of our species, they still have much to discover in terms of these early people's behaviour.
Professor Brown explains: "...the cultural aspects of humanity in most cases appear much later in the record - only 50,000 years ago - which would mean 150,000 years of Homo sapiens without cultural stuff, such as evidence of eating fish, of harpoons, anything to do with music (flutes and that sort of thing), needles, even tools. ~
~The waste from shellfish dinners discarded in a South African cave is said to be the earliest evidence of humans living and thriving by the sea.
The material was found by scientists working in a sandstone opening at Pinnacle Point on the Cape.
Researchers tell the journal Nature the remains were buried in sediments that are 164,000 years old. ~
~The researchers also found pieces of ochre, a soft stone that can be scraped to produce powders with rich pigments.
Ochres are viewed as important indicators of advanced behaviour - the use of colour for symbolism. And although the powders can have a functional use, as an ingredient in glue, the persistent choice of the brightest hues suggests some abstract activity is being undertaken, such as body painting.~
~ASU palaeoanthropologist Professor Curtis Marean said: "We also found what archaeologists call 'bladelets' - little blades less than 10mm in width, about the size of your little finger.
"These could be attached to the end of a stick to form a point for a spear, or lined up like barbs on a dart - which shows they were already using complex compound tools." ~
~Bisson agrees that the archaeological remains must be put in context depending on who makes the find, even. He pointed to the discovery of some Australopithecus remains in the 1920s, in what is now Botswana. Along with a skull, the material found included tools made from the bones of gazelles, antelopes and wild boar. The archaeologist working there mistakenly interpreted them as a cache of weapons, while later testing would show the points were used simply for digging in termite holes.
"A lot of this stuff was written between the First and Second World War," he reasoned. "It was very easy to see warfare and violence as inherent in the human condition during a period when humanity was literally trying to exterminate itself."
Mainstream media can also have a lot to do with what the public believes as fact.
"No archaeologist in the last 40 years has bought the ‘Killer Ape' interpretation, but it did get ingrained in popular culture in the intro sequence to the famous Stanley Kubrick film ["2001: A Space Odyssey"]," Bisson said. In the movie, ape-like humans are shown having the eureka moment that bones can be used as weapons, thus evolving to become hunters and killers. "It's a fairly literal dramatization of the hypothesis, complete with leg bones used as clubs."
Even if early humans were mostly cooperative with each other during the Paleolithic era—a period lasting about two million years—there is plenty of evidence to suggest that (like today), some people were just plain nasty. Cannibalism was clearly practiced in some areas, according to Bisson.
"We know that there is at least one case of Homo erectus with extensive cuts on the cranium indicating that the person was essentially scalped and the eyes gouged out," he said.
re:mighty joe young?
~A gigantic ape standing 10 feet tall and weighing up to 1,200 pounds lived alongside humans for over a million years, according to a new study.
Fortunately for the early humans, the huge primate's diet consisted mainly of bamboo.
Scientists have known about Gigantopithecus blackii since the accidental discovery of some of its teeth on sale in a Hong Kong pharmacy about 80 years ago. While the idea of a giant ape piqued the interest of scientists – and bigfoot hunters – around the world, it was unclear how long ago this beast went extinct.
Now Jack Rink, a geochronologist at McMaster University in Ontario, has used a high-precision absolute-dating method to determine that this ape – the largest primate ever – roamed Southeast Asia for nearly a million years before the species died out 100,000 years ago during the Pleistocene period. By this time, humans had existed for a million years.
"A missing piece of the puzzle has always focused on pin-pointing when Gigantopithecus existed," Rink said. "This is a primate that co-existed with humans at a time when humans were undergoing a major evolutionary change. Guangxhi province in southern China, where some of the Gigantopithecus fossils were found, is the same region where some believe the modern human race originated."
Since the original discovery, scientists have been able to piece together a description of Gigantopithecus using just a handful of teeth and a set of jawbones. It may not be much, but the unusually large size of these teeth indicates they belonged to one big ape.
"The size of these specimens – the crown of the molar, for instance, measures about an inch across – helped us understand the extraordinary size of the primate," Rink said.
Humans may have helped destroy the ape.
Further studies of the teeth revealed that the ape was an herbivore, and bamboo was probably its favorite meal. Some scientists believe that an appetite focused on bamboo combined with increasing competition from more nimble humans eventually led to the extinction of Gigantopithecus.
While most scientists agree that Gigantopithecus died out long ago, some people – Bigfoot, Sasquatch, and Yeti enthusiasts in particular – believe that this ape is the source of tales of giant, hairy beasts roaming the woods. These claims are not considered credible by mainstream scientists. There have been cases in which creatures are first known first by their fossil remains and later found living, such as the coelacanth – a type of fish thought to have died out millions of years ago until it was discovered swimming off the coast of Africa in 1938.
Researchers do not have a full skeleton for Gigantopithecus. But they can fill in the gaps and estimate its size and shape by comparing it to other primates – those that came before it, coexisted with it, and also modern apes. Currently, scientists are debating over how Gigantopithecus got around – was it bipedal or did it use its arms to help it walk, like modern chimpanzees and orangutans? The only way to answer this is to collect more bones
re: artifacts showing dinos with humans from icca peru
http://www.lifesite.net/ldn/2007/aug/07082808.html (ya gotta read it)
~In July, four San Diego firefighters were ordered, against their wishes, to participate in uniform on their city fire engine in San Diego's annual "Gay Pride" parade. During the course of the ensuing three hour long ordeal, the firefighters were subjected to vile sexual taunts and gestures along the parade route. These firemen are devoted husbands and fathers. All four firemen are Christian and two are Catholic.~
this is coming here,,for welfare and other gov aid recipeients:
~This year, they took the unusual step of suing the family planning agency in court. The judges ruled against them, saying Yang and Jin conceived out of wedlock. Local FAMILY PLANNING OFFICIALS SAID JIN CONSENTED TO THE ABORTION. The couple's appeal to a higher court is pending. ~
~During her 30-second message Erica spoke about her faith in Jesus Christ. Afterwards, she was escorted to see the assistant principal, who said she would not receive her diploma because of the speech she had given. Principal Brewer later indicated that her comments were "immature." He said that she could only receive her diploma if she apologized to the school community. ~
~In the year since it was approved for over-the-counter sales, the morning-after pill has become a huge commercial success for its manufacturer, but its popularity and solid safety record haven't deterred critics from seeking to overturn the milestone ruling.~
(attacks by pro-aborters against pro-lifer adverts)
(child survives 3 abortion procedures)
(spooky school spooks guards in new orleans)
~US scientists have unveiled a detector thousands of times smaller than the diameter of a human hair that can translate radio waves into sound.
According to a University of California team, the study marks the first time that a nano-sized detector has been demonstrated in a working radio system.
Made of carbon nanotubes a few atoms across, it is almost 1,000 times smaller than current radio technology.
Peter Burke and Chris Rutherglen incorporated the microscopic detector into a complete radio system.
It is conceivable in the future that all components could be nanoscale, thus allowing a truly nanoscale wireless communications system
Prof Peter Burke
They used it to transmit classical music wirelessly from an iPod to a speaker several metres away from the music player.
Full details of their findings will be published next month in the American Chemical Society's Nano Letters.
"Though we have only demonstrated the critical component of the entire radio system out of a nanotube (the demodulator), it is conceivable in the future that all components could be nanoscale, thus allowing a truly nanoscale wireless communications system," they write.
Many companies are interested in the long-term potential of carbon nanotubes - tiny cylinders of carbon that measure just a few billionths of a metre across.
Kris Sangani, Consumer Electronics Editor at the Institution of Engineering and Technology, UK, one of the world's leading professional societies, said there were many possible real world applications of "microscopic radio technology"- in medicine, commerce and on the battlefield.
He said the real challenge for industry was to miniaturise not just radio technology but other components such as sensors, the power supply and processors.
"Scientists are looking at carbon nanotubes to miniaturise all other technologies as well," he told BBC News. "If you can combine miniaturisation with cost control; that type of technology would be ubiquitous."
Such a development would bring the concept of smart dust - a cluster of devices, smaller than a grain of sand, equipped with wireless communications that can detect the likes of light, temperature, or vibration - into the realms of reality rather than science fiction.
Future uses might include meteorological, geophysical and biological research sensors. They could also be used for discreet military surveillance, or to create a distributed internet that would be accessible anywhere.~~
(both types of bird were extinctualized by evil white men)
~The island would have supported only a small, slow-breeding population and the birds were probably driven into extinction by hunting and the theft of their eggs by humans. The fact that it had existed for 60 million years (much longer than humans)
and adapted to a changing world, shows it to have been a very successful species. However, it was also specialised to an island environment with no large predators and was, therefore, not adapted to survive contact with aggressive European humans.
Fossil evidence indicates several other species of elephant bird, ranging from 3 ft (90 cm) to 10 ft (3 metres), had inhabited Madagascar, though most had died out before modern humans had evolved. As well as Aepyornis, one other species, the smaller Mullerornis,
probably survived into historic times. The reasons for these birds' extinction are hard to determine as there are no reliable historical records of the pre-European history of Madagascar. They were probably hunted by native people 1000-2000 years before European contact.
This was probably subsistence hunting and did not threaten the birds' numbers. Egg collecting by Europeans would have been much more of a threat - such huge eggs can only be laid in small numbers and the birds probably bred slowly. Habitat destruction would have posed a grave threat to such a specialised bird.~
~The aggressive Polynesian invaders became a Moa-hunting culture and for the moa, which had had no predators in 100 million years, the effect was devastating.
By the time Europeans discovered the islands in 1770, the giant moas had been hunted to extinction; their official extinction date is given as 1773. Europeans did not learn of the moa's existence until bones were discovered in the 1830s.~
~From the 10th century, great auk colonies in the Outer Hebrides and on islets off of Iceland were occasionally raided by sailors and fishermen as an alternative food source, though this small scale, local depredation had little effect on the great auk population. The records of great auks being hunted off the coast of Newfoundland are from 1497 when French fishing ships sailed after cod in the region. They took the "pingouins" and their eggs in such huge numbers, that they considered it unnecessary to stock their ships with food for the duration of their stay off the Grand Banks. In 1534, Jacques Cartier visited an "Island of Birds" off Newfoundland; his crew filled two boats with great auks in less than half an hour, and every ship salted down six barrelfuls of the birds. A Captain Mood recorded taking 100,000 eggs in a single day. The egg in the photos is preserved at Ipswich Museum, Ipswich, Suffolk, UK.
Though the great auk was extensively killed for food and its eggs take, it was not until the birds came to the attention of the feather industry that they were headed for extinction. Around 1760, the supply of eider-down and feathers for feather beds was exhausted due to excessive hunting of breeding eider ducks and the destruction of their nesting grounds along the east coast of North America. The feather merchants sent out crews to the great auk nesting grounds and the birds were killed on an industrial scale. By 1810, Funk Island was the only west Atlantic 'rookery' left. The feather company crews returned each spring until they had killed every bird.~
re:a glimpse into a pagan mind
~It was all in reaction to what I would call our white bread culture. Most of us do come from traditions that are vibrant and juicy. That's for a good reason: our parents, most of them, were immigrants to this country. Many fled oppression. Others were forcibly brought here against their will, in chains. Or they were the native people who were forced into conversion. So, in a sense, we all had earth-based traditions ripped from us. Of course, some of those traditions were fairly oppressive. In my mother's tradition, boys got the 50-cent Hebrew instructor who taught you meaning of the words, and girls got the 25-cent Hebrew instructor who taught you to mouth the syllables. But these traditions, for all their shortcomings, did have a juicy relationship to the earth. They had songs, they had stories, they had lullabies, they had ceremonies, they had dances. Very often, by contrast, the religion we've been brought up in is fairly white bread. You know, you sit there in the pew and some minister or rabbi lectures at you.
So there's a huge religious revival in our country--Christian, Jewish, Pagan, whatever--that's partly due to a hunger for the juice of ecstatic spiritual experience, a hunger for a deeper relationship to the earth, family, community, etcetera. You may search for those roots in many ways. A Christian might look for an ecstatic, evangelical relationship to Christianity, or you may say, "I am Welsh, and my ancestors were Pagans, and I would like to research that and create new ceremonies for that." ~
re:tower of babel
~The hollow words of Bertrand Russell, who advocated the use of vaccines to induce partial chemical lobotomies and create a servile zombie population, are then considered alongside the soaring rates of autism in the U.S. and the increasing amount of vaccines being mandated for babies and young children.~
~Endgame rips wide open how the myth of man-made global warming is being hyped by the establishment in order to create new feudalist control methods and convince people that their every action should be regulated by the state in the interests of supposedly saving the planet, while the real environmental crises go ignored.~
One of Scott’s greatest fans was the French author Jules Verne. He visited Scotland and Aberfoyle. In 1877, he wrote Black Diamonds, in which talks about the re-opening of a (fictional) coalmine in Aberfoyle. When a wall is blasted through, a vast cavern is revealed. This stretches for miles in many directions and holds an underground town, beside a subterranean loch.
re:hiawatha big bird story
re:snake man (gorgon style)
~Atotarho (or, with a prefixed particle, Thatotarho), Watatotahro, Tadodaho, according to the dialect of the speaker and the orthography of the writer. He was a man of great force of character and of formidable qualities--haughty, ambitious, crafty and bold--a determined and successful warrior, and at home, so far as the constitution of an Indian tribe would allow a stern and remorseless tyrant. He tolerated no equal. The chiefs who ventured to oppose him were taken off one after another by secret means, or were compelled to flee for safety to other tribes. His subtlety and artifices had acquired for him the reputation of a wizard. He knew, they say, what was going on at a distance as well as if he were present; and he could destroy his enemies by some magical art, while he himself was far away. In spite of the fear which he inspired, his domination would probably not have been endured by an Indian community, but for his success in war. He had made himself and his people a terror to the Cayugas and the Senecas.~
~The name Atotarho signifies "entangled." The usual process by which mythology, after a few generations, makes fables out of names, has not been wanting here. In the legends which the Indian story-tellers recount in winter, about their cabin fires, Atotarho figures as a being of preterhuman nature, whose head, in lieu of hair, is adorned with living snakes. A rude pictorial representation shows him seated and giving audience, in horrible state, with the upper part of his person enveloped by these writhing and entangled reptiles. 1~
~But what effect the grand projects of the chief, enforced by the eloquence for which he was noted, might have had upon his auditors, could not be known. For there appeared among them a well-known figure, grim, silent and forbidding, whose terrible aspect overawed the assemblage. The unspoken displeasure of Atotarho was sufficient to stifle all debate, and the meeting dispersed. This result, which seems a singular conclusion of an Indian council--the most independent and free-spoken of all gatherings--is sufficiently explained by the fact that Atotarho had organized, among the more reckless warriors of his tribe, a band of unscrupulous partisans, who did his bidding without question, and took off by secret murder all persons against whom he bore a grudge.~
~To my friend Chief George Johnson I am under still greater obligations. Mr. Johnson, as has been stated, is the son of Chief J. S. Johnson, and is himself a high chief of the Canienga nation. He bears in the Great Council the name of Teyonhehkwen (otherwise spelt Deyonheghgonh), meaning "Double Life," one of the titular names which were borne by the companions of Hiawatha and Atotarho in the first council. He succeeded in this title, according to the rules of the confederacy, his maternal uncle, on the nomination of his mother, as the chief matron of the family. Mr. Johnson is an educated gentleman. In early life he was a pupil of the English missionaries. He now holds the position of Government Interpreter for the Six Nations, and is, in fact, the chief executive officer of the Canadian government on the Reserve.~
re:moon legend of tejas
re:natchez flood story
re:adoption of human race
~Then the old man said, "I have told you all how to guide yourselves and what to do. You all must remember that these children are my children."~
~That's the Spirit: Belief in Ghosts High
Published: 10/26/07, 2:46 PM EDT
By ALAN FRAM and TREVOR TOMPSON
WASHINGTON (AP) - Those things that go bump in the night? About one-third of people believe they could be ghosts.
And nearly one out of four, 23 percent, say they've actually seen a ghost or felt its presence, finds a pre-Halloween poll by The Associated Press and Ipsos.
One is Misty Conrad, who says she fled her rented home in Syracuse, Ind., after her daughter began talking to an unseen girl named Nicole and neighbors said children had been murdered in the house. That was after the TV and lights began flicking on at night.
"It kind of creeped you out," Conrad, 40, of Hampton, Va., recalled this week. "I needed to get us out."
About one out of five people, 19 percent, say they accept the existence of spells or witchcraft. Nearly half, 48 percent, believe in extrasensory perception, or ESP.
The most likely candidates for ghostly visits include single people, Catholics and those who never attend religious services. By 31 percent to 18 percent, more liberals than conservatives report seeing a specter.
Those who dismissed the existence of ghosts include Morris Swadener, 66, a Navy retiree from Kingston, Wash.
He says he shot one with his rifle when he was a child.
"I woke up in the middle of the night and saw a white ghost in my closet," he said. "I discovered I'd put a hole in my brand new white shirt. My mother and father were not amused."
Three in 10 have awakened sensing a strange presence in the room. For whatever it says about matrimony, singles are more likely than married people to say so.
Fourteen percent - mostly men and lower-income people - say they have seen a UFO. Among them is Danny Eskanos, 44, an attorney in Palm Harbor, Fla., who says as a Colorado teenager he watched a bright light dart across the sky, making abrupt stops and turns.
"I knew a little about airplanes and helicopters, and it was not that," he said. "It's one of those things that sticks in your mind."
Spells and witchcraft are more readily believed by urban dwellers, minorities and lower-earning people. Those who find credibility in ESP are more likely to be better educated and white - 51 percent of college graduates compared to 37 percent with a high school diploma or less, about the same proportion by which white believers outnumber minorities.
Overall, the 48 percent who accept ESP is less than the 66 percent who gave that answer to a similar 1996 Newsweek question.
One in five say they are at least somewhat superstitious, with young men, minorities, and the less educated more likely to go out of their way to seek luck. Twenty-six percent of urban residents - twice the rate of those from rural areas - said they are superstitious, while single men were more superstitious than unmarried women, 31 percent to 17 percent.
The most admitted-to superstition, by 17 percent, was finding a four-leaf clover. Thirteen percent dread walking under a ladder or the groom seeing his bride before their wedding, while slightly smaller numbers named black cats, breaking mirrors, opening umbrellas indoors, Friday the 13th or the number 13.
Generally, women were more superstitious than men about four-leaf clovers, breaking mirrors or grooms prematurely seeing brides. Democrats were more superstitious than Republicans over opening umbrellas indoors, while liberals were more superstitious than conservatives over four-leaf clovers, grooms seeing brides and umbrellas.
Then there's Jack Van Geldern, a computer programmer from Riverside, Conn. Now 51, Van Geldern is among the 5 percent who say they have seen a monster in the closet - or in his case, a monster's face he spotted on the wall of his room as a child.
"It was so terrifying I couldn't move," he said. "Needless to say I survived the event and never saw it again."
The poll, conducted Oct. 16-18, involved telephone interviews with 1,013 adults and had a margin of sampling error of plus or minus 3.1 percentage points.~
SignOnSanDiego.com Human 'cat'
Following an ancient Huron tradition, Avner said he is changing himself into his totem of a tiger. That explains the catlike tattoos that cover his face and ...
re:recent find in south america
~U.S. and Puerto Rican archaeologists say they have found the best-preserved pre-Columbian site in the Caribbean, which could shed light on virtually every aspect of Indian life in the region, from sacred rituals to eating habits.
The archaeologists believe the site in southern Puerto Rico may have belonged to the Taino or pre-Taino people that inhabited the island before European colonization, although other tribes are a possibility. It contains stones etched with ancient petroglyphs that form a large plaza measuring some 130 feet by 160 feet, which could have been used for ball games or ceremonial rites, said Aida Belen Rivera, director of the Puerto Rican Historic Conservation office.
The petroglyphs include the carving of a human figure with masculine features and frog legs.
Archaeologists also uncovered several graves with bodies buried face-down with the legs bent at the knees - a style never seen before in the region.~
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