Delphi to Jebusite
~EROS was the Protogenos (primordial deity) of procreation who emerged self-formed at the beginning of time. He was the driving force behind the generation of new life in the early cosmos. The Orphics knew him as Phanes, a primal being hatched from the world egg at creation. He was also equivalent to Thesis, "Creation," and Physis, "Nature."
The Younger Eros, a mischievous boy-god armed with bow and arrows, was a son of the goddess Aphrodite.~
~ EROS & THE BIRTH OF THE UNIVERSE
I) THE HESIODIC THEOGONY
Hesiod, Theogony 116 ff (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th or C7th B.C.) :
"Verily at first Khaos (Air) came to be, but next wide-bosomed Gaia (Earth), the ever-sure foundation of al1 the deathless ones who hold the peaks of snowy Olympos, and dim Tartaros (Hell) in the depth of the wide-pathed Earth, and Eros (Love), fairest among the deathless gods, who unnerves the limbs and overcomes the mind and wise counsels of all gods and all men within them."
II) THE COSMOGONY OF ALKMAN
Alcman, Fragment 5 (from Scholia) (trans. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric II) (Greek lyric C7th B.C.) :
"`[First came] Thetis (Creation). After that, ancient Poros (Contriver) [Khronos?] and Tekmor (Ordinance) [Ananke?]' : Tekmor came into being after Poros . . . thereupon . . . called him Poros (Contriver) since the beginning provided all things; for when the matter began to be set in order, a certain Poros came into being as a beginning. So Alkman represents the matter of all things as confused and unformed."
Plato, Timaeus 178a (trans. Lamb) (Greek philosopher C4th B.C.) :
"[Plato reorders some of Alkman's Theogony in a fable :] Poros (Expediency), who is the son of Metis [i.e. Thetis] . . . Penia (Poverty) considering her own straitened circumstances, plotted to have a child by him, and accordingly she lay down at his side and conceived Eros (Sexual Desire)."
III) THE ORPHIC COSMOGONY
In the Orphic Theogonies the primordial Eros is usually named Phanes (see the separate Phanes entry for more information on this deity). ~
~Phanes was portrayed as a beautiful golden-winged hermaphroditic deity wrapped in a serpent's coils. The poets describe him as an incorporeal being invisible even through the eyes of the gods. His name means "bring to light" or "make appear" from the Greek verbs phanaô and phainô.~
~PHANES & THE BIRTH OF THE COSMOS
THE ORPHIC COSMOGONY
Orphica, Theogonies Fragment 54 (from Damascius) (trans. West) (Greek hymns C3rd - C2nd B.C.) :
"Originally there was Hydros (Water), he [Orpheus] says, and Mud, from which Ge (the Earth) solidified: he posits these two as first principles, water and earth . . . The one before the two [Thesis], however, he leaves unexpressed, his very silence being an intimation of its ineffable nature. The third principle after the two was engendered by these--Ge (Earth) and Hydros (Water), that is - and was a Serpent (Drakon) with extra heads growing upon it of a bull and a lion, and a god’s countenance in the middle; it had wings upon its shoulders, and its name was Khronos (Unaging Time) and also Herakles.
United with it was Ananke (Inevitability, Compulsion) , being of the same nature, or Adrastea, incorporeal, her arms extended throughout the universe and touching its extremities. I think this stands for the third principle, occuping the place of essence, only he [Orpheus] made it bisexual [as Phanes] to symbolize the universal generative cause. And I assume that the theology of the [Orphic] Rhapsodies discarded the two first principles (together with the one before the two, that was left unspoken) [that is, the Orphics discarded the concepts of Thesis, Khronos and Ananke], and began from this third principle [Phanes] after the two, because this was the first that was expressible and acceptable to human ears. For this is the great Khronos (Unaging Time) that we found in it [the Rhapsodies], the father of Aither and Khaos.
Indeed, in this theology too [the Hieronyman], this Khronos (Time), the serpent has offspring, three in number: moist Aither (Light) (I quote), unbounded Khaos (Air), and as a third, misty Erebos (Darkness) . . . Among these, he says, Khronos (Time) generated an egg--this tradition too making it generated by Khronos, and born ‘among’ these because it is from these that the third Intelligible triad is produced [Protogonos-Phanes].
What is this triad, then? The egg; the dyad of the two natures inside it (male and female), and the plurality of the various seeds between; and thirdly an incorporeal god with golden wings on his shoulders, bulls’ heads growing upon his flanks, and on his head a monstrous serpent, presenting the appearance of all kinds of animal forms . . . And the third god of the third triad this theology too celebrates as Protogonos (First-Born) [Phanes], and it calls him Zeus the order of all and of the whole world, wherefore he is also called Pan (All). So much this second genealogy supplies concerning the Intelligible principles."
Orphica, Theogonies Fragment 57 (from Athenogoras) :
"Khronos (Time) . . . [also called] Herakles generated a huge egg, which, being filled full, by the force of its engenderer was broken in two from friction. Its crown became Ouranos (Heaven), and what had sunk downwards, Gaia (Earth). There also came forth an incorporeal god [Protogonos-Phanes]."
[Athenogoras afterwards goes on to describe the birth of the Hekatonkheires, the Kyklopes and the Titanes; the castration of Ouranos, etc.]~
~In Greek and Roman mythology, Apollo (in Greek, ??????? — Apóllo-n or ??????? — Apello-n), the ideal of the kouros (a beardless youth), was the archer-god of medicine and healing, light, truth, archery and also a bringer of death-dealing plague.
As the patron of Delphi ("Pythian Apollo"), Apollo was an oracular god. He was the prophetic deity of the Delphic Oracle, as well as one of the most important and many-sided of the Olympian deities. Apollo also had dominion over colonists, over medicine (mediated through his son Asclepius), and was the patron defender of herds and flocks. As the leader of the Muses (Apollon Musagetes) and director of their choir, he is a god of music and poetry. Hymns sung to Apollo were called paeans~
The etymology of Apollo is uncertain. It may have had an original meaning of "the destroyer", cognate to ???????? "destroy" (cf. Apollyon, which is a form of ????????.) This is not widely accepted in modern scholarship;[attribution needed] the disappearance of ? is inexplicable.
Several instances of popular etymology are attested from ancient authors. Thus, Plato in Cratylus connects the name with ???????? "redeem", with ????????? "purification", and with ?????? "simple", in particular in reference to the Thessalian form of the name, ??????, and finally with ???-?????? "ever-shooting". The ?????? suggestion is repeated by Plutarch in Moralia in the sense of "unity". Hesychius connects the name Apollo with the Doric ??????, which means "assembly", so that Apollo would be the god of political life, and he also gives the explanation ????? ("fold"), in which case Apollo would be the god of flocks and herds. It is also possible that apellai derives from an old form of Apollo which can be equated with Appaliunas, an Anatolian god whose name possibly means "father lion" or "father light". The Greeks later associated Apollo's name with the Greek verb ???????? (apollymi) meaning "to destroy".
It has also been suggested that Apollo comes from the Hurrian and Hittite divinity, Aplu, who was widely evoked during the "plague years". Aplu, it is suggested, comes from the Akkadian Aplu Enlil, meaning "the son of Enlil", a title that was given to the god Nergal, who was linked to Shamash, Babylonian god of the sun~
~Origins of Cult
It appears that both Greek and Etruscan Apollo came to the Aegean during the Archaic Period (i.e. from c.1,100 BCE to c.800 BCE) from Anatolia. Homer pictures him on the side of the Trojans, against the Achaeans, during the Trojan War and he has close affiliations with a Luwian deity, Apaliuna, who in turn seems to have traveled west from further east. The Late Bronze Age (from 1,700 BCE - 1,200 BCE) Hittite and Hurrian Aplu, like the Homeric Apollo, was a god of plagues, and resembles the mouse god Apollo Smintheus. Here we have an apotropaic situation, where a god originally bringing the plague was invoked to end it, merging over time through fusion with the Mycenaean "doctor" god Paieon (PA-JA-WO in Linear B); Paean, in Homer, was the Greek physician of the gods. In other writers, the word is a mere epithet of Apollo in his capacity as a god of healing, but it is now known from Linear B that Paean was originally a separate deity.~
~Hittite may refer to:
* the Hittites, an ancient Anatolian people.
* the Neo-Hittite states, Iron Age successors to the above located in modern Turkey and Syria.
* the Hittite language, an ancient Indo-European language.
* Biblical Hittites, also known as the "Children of Heth".
~Hittites is the conventional English-language term for an ancient people who spoke an Indo-European language and established a kingdom centered in Hattusa (Hittite URUH(attuša) in north-central Anatolia from the 18th century BC. In the 14th century BC, the Hittite Empire was at its height, encompassing central Anatolia, north-western Syria as far as Ugarit, and upper Mesopotamia. After 1180 BC, amid general turmoil in the Levant associated with the sudden arrival of the Sea Peoples, the empire disintegrated into several independent "Neo-Hittite" city-states, some of which survived until as late as the 8th century BC. The history of the Hittite civilization is known mostly from cuneiform texts found in the area of their empire, and from diplomatic and commercial correspondence found in various archives in Egypt and the Middle East.~
~The Hurrians (also Khurrites; cuneiform H(u-ur-ri ???) were a people of the Ancient Near East, who lived in northern Mesopotamia and areas to the immediate east and west, beginning approximately 2500 BC. They probably originated in the Caucasus and entered from the north, but this is not certain. Their known homeland was centred in Subartu, the Khabur River valley, and later they established themselves as rulers of small kingdoms throughout northern Mesopotamia and Syria. The largest and most influential Hurrian nation was the kingdom of Mitanni. They are considered by scholars to be one of several ancestors of modern Armenians and Kurds.
The Hurrians played a substantial part in the History of the Hittites.~
~The city state of Urkesh
The Khabur River valley became the heart of the Hurrian lands for a millennium. The first known Hurrian kingdom up to date emerged around the city of Urkesh during the third millennium BC. The end of the Akkadian Empire enabled the Hurrians to gain control of the area. This region had been the center of rich cultures (see Tell Halaf and Tell Brak). Now the Hurrians could benefit from this and organize their own advanced city-state.
The city state of Urkesh still had some powerful neighbors, however. At some point in the early second millennium BC the Amorite kingdom of Mari to the south subdued Urkesh into a vassal state. In the continuous power struggle over Mesopotamia another Amorite dynasty made themselves masters over Mari in the eighteenth century BC. The capital of this Old Assyrian kingdom called Shubat-Enlil was founded some distance from Urkesh at another Hurrian settlement in the Khabur River valley.~
~The city appears to have been abandoned about half-way through the second millennium BC, although the reason for this is unknown to archaeologists at this time.~
~The Hurrian myth “The Songs of Ullikummi”, preserved among the Hittites, is a parallel to Hesiod's Theogony; the castration of Uranus by Cronus may be derived from the castration of Anu by Kumarbi, while Zeus's overthrow of Cronus and Cronus's regurgitation of the swallowed gods is like the Hurrian myth of Teshub and Kumarbi. It has been argued that the worship of Attis drew on Hurrian myth. The Phrygian goddess Cybele would then be the counterpart of the Hurrian goddess Hebat.~
~Attis (sometimes written as "Atys"), a life-death-rebirth deity, was the lover of Cybele, her eunuch attendant and driver of her lion-driven chariot; he was driven mad by her and castrated himself. Attis was originally a local semi-deity of Phrygia, associated with the great Phrygian trading city of Pessinos, which lay under the lee of Mount Agdistis. The mountain was personified as a daemon, whom foreigners associated with the Great Mother Cybele.~
~The story of his origins from Agdistis, as told to the traveller Pausanias, have some distinctly non-Greek elements: Pausanias was told that the daemon Agdistis initially bore both male and female attributes. But the Olympian gods, fearing Agdistis, cut off the male organ and cast it away. There grew up from it an almond-tree, and when its fruit was ripe, Nana who was a daughter of the river Sangarios picked the fruit and laid it in her bosom. It at once disappeared, but she was with child. In time her son was born and exposed on the hillside, but the infant was tended by a he-goat. As Attis grew, his long-haired beauty was godlike, and Agdistis as Cybele, then fell in love with him. But the foster parents of Attis sent him to Pessinos, where he was to wed the king's daughter. According to some versions the King of Pessinos was Midas. Just as the marriage-song was being sung, Agdistis/Cybele appeared in her transcendent power, and Attis went mad and cut off his genitals. Attis' father-in-law-to-be, the king who was giving his daughter in marriage, followed suit, prefiguring the self-castrating corybantes who devoted themselves to Cybele. But Agdistis repented and saw to it that the body of Attis should neither rot at all nor decay. (Pausanias, Greece, 7.19)
Attis was reborn as the evergreen pine. At the temple of Cybele/Rhea in Pessinos, the mother of the gods was still called Agdistis, the geographer Strabo recounted. (Geography, 12.5.3)~
In Greek mythology heavily influenced by cultures from the East, Agdistis was a powerful hermaphroditic daemon. Agdistis was chaotic, neither good nor evil, but impossible to control, containing all of the powers of creation within his/her body and using these powers to wreak havoc.
There are two stories concerning the origin of Agdistis. In the first, Zeus raped the goddess Cybele after she disguised herself as a rock, and Agdistis was conceived. In the second, Agdistis was born when Zeus dropped his semen upon the ground in his excitement over an unknown goddess that resisted his attentions, causing a rock or a mountain to become pregnant with Agdistis. Agdistis was named after this mountain (mount Agdos).
The Gods sought to stop Agdistis's uncontrolled destruction. To this end, Dionysus got Agdistis drunk by turning a spring into wine and Agdistis fell into a deep sleep. While Agdistic slept, Dionysus tied the daemon's male genitals to his/her legs or arms, then startled Agdistic awake. Leaping up in fright, the male genitals tore off. Where they fell upon the ground, an almond tree sprung up.
Deprived of these male parts, Agdistis was now a female divinity and became the great Mother Goddess Cybele.
Some time later, Nana, the daughter of a river spirit, came upon the almond tree and either eating an almond, placing it in her lap, or bringing it to her breast she became pregnant and bore Attis. She subsequently abandoned Attis to be found and raised by shepherds under the watchful eye of Cybele, who later would be his lover.~
~Attis checked the wild team, and hung the reins on the handrail, and disclosing the smooth surface of his rosy cheeks, called out a flood of loud words to Bakkhos - ‘Dionysos of the vine, son of Zeus, offspring of Rheia! Answer me: when will you destroy the woollyheaded nation of Indians and come back to the Lydian land? Not yet has Rheia seen your blackskin captives;~
~Originally a Phrygian goddess, Cybele (Greek: ??????) was a deification of the Earth Mother who was worshipped in Anatolia from Neolithic times. As with Gaia (the "Earth") or her Minoan equivalent Rhea, Cybele embodies the fertile Earth, a goddess of caverns and mountains, walls and fortresses, nature, wild animals (especially lions and bees).
Her title, Potnia Theron, which also is associated with the Minoan Great Mother, alludes to her ancient Neolithic roots as "Mistress of the Animals". She becomes a life-death-rebirth deity in connection with her resurrection of her son and consort, Attis. She is associated with her lion throne and her chariot drawn by lions.
Her Roman equivalent was Magna Mater or "Great Mother". Walter Burkert, who treats Meter among "foreign gods" in Greek Religion (1985, section III.3,4) puts it succinctly: "The cult of the Great Mother, Meter, presents a complex picture insofar as indigenous, Minoan-Mycenean tradition is here intertwined with a cult taken over directly from the Phrygian kingdom of Asia Minor" (p 177).~
~Another theory is that her name can be traced to the Luwian Kubaba, the deified queen of the Third Dynasty of Kish worshiped at Carchemish and Hellenized to Kybebe ~
~Cybele's most ecstatic followers were males who ritually castrated themselves, after which they were given women's clothing and assumed "female" identities, who were referred to by one third-century commentator, Callimachus, in the feminine as, Gallai, but to whom other contemporary commentators in ancient Greece and Rome referred to as Gallos or Galli.
There is no mention of these followers in Classical references although they related that her priestesses led the people in orgiastic ceremonies with wild music, drumming, dancing, and drinking. She was associated with the mystery religion concerning her son, Attis, who was castrated, died of his wounds, and resurrected by his mother. The dactyls were part of her retinue.
Other followers of Cybele, the Phrygian kurbantes or Corybantes, expressed her ecstatic and orgiastic cult in music, especially drumming, clashing of shields and spears, dancing, singing, and shouting—all at night.~
~Galli (singular Gallus) was the Roman name for castrated followers of the Phrygian goddess Cybele, which were regarded as a third gender by contemporary Roman scholars, comparable to transgendered people in the modern world. The chief of these priests was referred to as a battakes, and later as the archigallus.~
~The name Galli may be derived from the Gallus river in Phrygia. Alternatively it may be derived from the Sumerian Gallu, (from "Gal" = Great, "Lu" = Man) special servants of the Sumerian God Enki, of ambiguous gender~
~In Greek mythology, the Dactyls (Greek for "fingers") were the archaic race of small phallic male beings associated with the Great Mother, whether as Cybele or Rhea. Their numbers vary, but often they were ten spirit-men so like the three Curetes, the Cabiri or the Korybantes that they were often interchangeable. The Dactyls were both ancient smiths and healing magicians. In some myths, they are in Hephaestus' employ, and they taught metalworking, mathematics, and the alphabet to humans.
When Rhea, the mother of the gods, knew her time of delivery was come, she went to the sacred cave on Mount Ida. As she squatted in labor she dug her fingers into the earth (Gaia), which brought forth these daktyloi Idaioi ("Idaean fingers"), thus often ten in number, or sometimes multiplied into a race of ten tens. Three is just as often given as their number. They are sometimes instead numbered as thirty-three. When Greeks offered a most solemn oath, often they would press their hands against the earth as they uttered it.
The Dactyls of Mount Ida in Phrygia invented the art of working metals into usable shapes with fire;~
~Later Greek attempts to justify and rationalize the relationships of Dactyls, Curetes and Corybantes were never fully successful. Strabo says of the mythographers:
"And they suspect that both the Kouretes and the Korybantes were offspring of the Daktyloi Idaioi; at any rate, the first hundred men born in Crete were called Idaian Daktyloi, they say, and these were born of nine Kouretes, for each of these begot ten children who were called Idaian Daktyloi." (Strabo, Geography 10.3.22)
The Cabiri (Kabeiroi) whose sacred place was on the island of Samothrace, were understood by Diodorus Siculus to have been Idaean dactyls who had come west from Phrygia and whose magical practices had made local converts to their secret cult.
On Rhodes, Telchines were the name given to similar chthonic men, nine in number, remembered by Greeks as dangerous Underworld smiths and magicians, and multiplied into an entire autochthonous race that had reared Poseidon but had been supplanted by Apollo in his Helios role.
In Crete, three Dactyls bore names suggestive of healing: Paionios (later associated with Asclepius), Epimedes, and Iasios. It was said that they had introduced the smithing of copper and iron. Of Iasios it was told (Hesiod, Theogony 970) that he lay with Demeter, a stand-in for Rhea, in a thrice-ploughed field and the Goddess brought forth Ploutos, "wealth", in the form of a bountiful harvest. Zeus struck down this impious archaic figure with a thunderbolt. This is all of the public version of this myth that survives. Doubtless, initiates must have known more.
An Idaean dactyl named Herakles (perhaps the earliest embodiment of the later hero) originated the Olympic Games by instigating a race among his four "finger" brothers. This Herakles was the "thumb"; his brothers were Aeonius (forefinger), Epimedes (middle finger), Jasius (ring finger/healing finger), and Idas (little finger).~
~Kubaba (in the Weidner "Chronicle"), also known as Kug-Baba or Kubau, is the only queen on the Sumerian king list. Before overthrowing the rule of En-Shakansha-Ana of the 2nd Uruk Dynasty and becoming monarch, the king list says she was a tavern-keeper.
"The house of Kubaba" is mentioned "in the reign of Puzur-Nirah, king of Akshak" (line 38) in the Weidner "Chronicle", a propagandistic letter attempting to predate the shrine of Marduk to an early period:~
Laura's "Day of Blood" by Laura Seabrook
* For there are some eunuchs, which were so born from their mother's womb: and there are some eunuchs,
which were made eunuchs of men: and there be eunuchs,
which have made themselves eunuchs
for the kingdom of heaven's sake.
When I was about 6-7 years of age I went to a school sports-carnival and got lost coming home. I waited at the wrong exit, and the public transport staff, taking pity on me, gave me a lift home. As it happened I got home at least an hour earlier than the rest of the school children. That night I had a peculiar dream:
I dreamt that I was wandering lost in the night down a dirt road. I'm dressed as a schoolboy and carrying a bag full of textbooks. Then, a vanguard (my father owned one of those) drives by and stops. The door opens and a young woman wearing a pillbox hat offers me a lift. I get in, not knowing what else to do.
On the back seat are two enormous cats, one black and one spotted, which look at me with inquisitive eyes (and one licks me on the face). The woman tells me not to be afraid and comforts me, saying that everything will be OK. After a while we arrive at my parents' house. I thank her and leave the car, dressed as a schoolgirl.
It wasn't until a few years later that I started developing gender dysphoria, but the dream seemed to be a precursor of it. It wasn't until after I started my gender transition, and became pagan, that in the dream I'd met Cybele, Goddess of transgender persons.
Conventional wisdom would have it that transgendered and transsexual people are a recent phenomenon, particular to the 20th century. Nothing could be further from the truth. There have been transgendered people in different cultures and in different times.
And some of us have been priests and priestesses. The Gallae, who followed Cybele and Attis, were such as this~
~Lastly, but hardly least importantly, is the spiritual sense. Being a Gallae doesn't make one any "better" than anyone who isn't (just as being Catholic doesn't give one the high moral ground over someone who isn't) but hopefully it will help enrich your life in a spiritual way.
Spirituality is how we embrace and cope with the world on everyday terms. It's not about abstracts or metaphysics (that's religion) but about the core of one's being, and of honouring that core while being in the world.
This is why honesty is important. It became clear to me that the transgendered path by which I became Laura (which comes from my own core identity), by which I abandoned any pretence of being a man, and started interacting and living as a woman, had to be a spiritual one. The twists and turns of that path are different for everyone, though there is a common core that we can all appreciate.
If you deny the reality of this, if you are not honest to yourself about who you are, then how can you grow and learn in fully positive way? Why trade one set of pretence for another? Being honest in this way is not always an easy path but then the quickest or shortest route to a destination is not always the most productive either. Some people might say that they just want to be "normal" and have everyday lives, in the gender that is right for them.
There's nothing wrong in this - we all have our dreams of happiness and ways of achieving it. However, what have you gained if you get the dream and deny the reality?
In late October of 2000 I should have my reassignment surgery, my own "Day of Blood". I'll be flying overseas for it (as a result of another dream featuring Cybele, where she told me to trust my intuition) and a friend will go with me. I will have "eaten of the drum" and "drunk of the cymbal" as they said back in Roman times.
Before I go I hope to have a ritual or two with some pagan friends. ~
~CULT OF CYBELE: The Lady of Dindymus
Sapphire Mail List
Gallae is derivative of Latin for Cock or Rooster. Historically the Gallae were referred to as Galloi or Galli (plural), or Gallus (singular). This reflects I think how those archivists whose works have survived saw them - as deviant males and yes, the Romans also had the same slang meaning back then! However, this little red hen uses the feminine version of the title, reflecting current use for transgendered males.~
~A site devoted to the cult of Magna Mater and her temple on the Capitoline Hill~
~The early history of the Hittite kingdom is known through tablets that may first have been written in the 17th century BC but survived only as copies made in the 14th and 13th centuries BC. These tablets, known collectively as the Anitta text (ed. StBoT 18), begin by telling how Pithana the king of Kussara or Kussar (a small city-state yet to be identified by archaeologists) conquered the neighbouring city of Neša (Kanesh). However, the real subject of these tablets is Pithana's son Anitta, who continued where his father left off and conquered several neighbouring cities, including Hattusa and Zalpuwa (Zalpa).~
~In the past, Bible scholars sometimes identified them as the Biblical Horites, Hivites and Jebusites, though there is little factual basis for such a connection.
Several other ancient peoples of the region, including the Kesedim, Subarians, Gutians, Kassites and Lullubi have all been described at one time or another as Hurrian peoples. Recently, with the discovery of the Tikunani Prism, there has been growing support for the theory that the Habiru, who were for a time believed to be the ancient Hebrews, may have been Hurrian speakers.~
Links : Pile : Bible : WebWalk : 1 delphi to jebusite