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Hubal (???) was a god worshipped in pagan Arabia, notably at Mecca before the arrival of Islam.



* 1 Hubal in Mesopotamia

* 2 Hubal and the Kaaba

* 3 Hubal and Allah

* 4 Modern references

* 5 Notes

* 6 External links

- Hubal in Mesopotamia

Tracing the origins of ancient gods is often tenuous. If the name Hubal is related to an Aramaic word for spirit, as suggested by Philip K. Hitti[1], then Hubal may have come from the north of Arabia.

In Sumer, in southernmost Mesopotamia north of Arabia, the moon-god figures in the Creation epic, the Enuma Elish; in a variant of it, Hubal is chief among the elder gods. According to Hitti, a tradition recorded by Muhammad's early biographer ibn Ishaq, which makes ?Amr ibn-Luhayy the importer of an image of Hubal from Moab or Mesopotamia, may have a kernel of truth insofar as it retains a memory of such an Aramaic origin of the deity.

Outside South Arabia, Hubal's name appears just once in a Nabataean inscription; [2] there Hubal is mentioned along with the gods ?u sh-Shara- (?? ??????) and Manawatu—the latter, as Manat, was also popular in Mecca. On the basis of such slender evidence, it has been suggested that Hubal "may actually have been a Nabataean" [3], but the Nabataeans were cosmospolitan traders who drew on many traditions in every aspect of life.

According to Hafiz Ghulam Sarwar,Muhammad The Holy Prophet (1969),

About four hundred years before the birth of Muhammad one ?Amr ibn Lahya ibn Harath ibn ?Amru l-Qays ibn Thalaba ibn Azd ibn Khalan ibn Babalyun ibn Saba, a descendant of Qahtan and King of the Hijaz, more usually called Amr ibn Luhayy, had put an idol called Hubal on the roof of the Ka?abat. This was one of the chief deities of the Quraysh before Islam."

The actual date for this quasi-legendary leader of the Quraysh are disputed, with dates as late as the end of the fourth century CE suggested, but what is quite sure is that the Qurayshiyya became the protectors of the ancient holy place, supplanting the Khuza'a. There may be some foundation of truth in the story that Luhayy had travelled in Syria and had brought back from there the cults of the goddesses ?Uzza-' and Manat, and had combined it with that of Hubal, the idol of the Khuza'a. (Maxime Rodinson, 1961).

An earlier reference to this legend records that he

"brought with him [to Mecca] an idol called Hubal from the land of Hit in Mesopotamia... So he set it up at the well inside the Kaaba and ordered the people to worship it. Thus a man coming back from a journey would visit it and circumambulate the House before going to his family, and he would shave his hair before it. Muhammad ibn Ishaq said that Hubal was cornelian pearl in the shape of a human. His right hand was broken off and the Quraysh made a gold hand for it. It had a vault for the sacrifice, and there were seven arrows cast [on issues relating to] a dead person, virginity and marriage. Its offering was a hundred camels. It had a custodian (hajib)" (Al-Azraqi, died 834 CE, an early commentator).

According to Ibn al-Kalbi's Book of Idols,

"The Quraysh had several idols in and around the Kaaba. The greatest of these was Hubal. It was made, as I was told, of red agate, in the form of a man with the right hand broken off. It came into the possession of the Quraysh in this condition, and they therefore made for it a hand of gold. The first to set it up was Khuzaymah ibn-Mudrikah ibn-al-Ya's' ibn-Mudar. Consequently it used to be called 'Khuzaymah's Hubal'.

"It stood inside the Kaaba. In front of it were seven divination arrows. On one of these arrows was written "pure" (sarih), and on another "consociated alien" (mulsag). Whenever the lineage of a new-born was doubted, they would offer a sacrifice to it [Hubal] and then shuffle the arrows and throw them ... It was before [Hubal] that 'Abd-al-Muttalib shuffled the divination arrows [in order to find out which of his ten children he should sacrifice in fulfilment of a vow he had sworn], and the arrows pointed to his son ?Abdu l-La-h, father of the Prophet.

"In 624 at the battle called 'Uhud', the war cry of the Qurayshites was, 'O people of ?Uzza-', people of Hubal!' By the end of that war, the victorious Abu- Sufya-n ibn-Harb cried, 'O Hubal be exalted, O Hubal be exalted!'"

"The Prophet answered him: 'God is the highest and the most exalted.'"

Julius Wellhausen[4] indicates that Hubal was regarded as the son of al-La-t and the brother of Wadd.

- Hubal and the Kaaba

One notable center of Hubal-worship is said to have been at the Kaaba at Mecca, prior to the religious reforms instituted by Muhammad in AD 630. At that time, the moon god Hubal was the senior-most of the 360 god idols worshipped in the shrine.

About four hundred years before the birth of Muhammad, a man named Amr bin Lahyo bin Harath bin Amr ul-Qais bin Thalaba bin Azd bin Khalan bin Babalyun bin Saba, who was descended from Qahtan and king of Hijaz (the northwestern section of Saudi Arabia, which encompassed the cities of Mecca and Medina), had placed a Hubal idol onto the roof of the Kaaba, and this idol was one of the chief deities of the ruling Quraysh tribe. The idol was made of red agate, and shaped like a human, but with the right hand broken off and replaced with a golden hand. When the idol was moved inside the Kaaba, it had seven arrows in front of it, which were used for divination.[5] According to Karen Armstrong, in her book Islam: A Short History, the Kaaba was dedicated to Hubal, and contained 360 idols which probably represented the days of the year,[6] and Hubal's was said to be the grandest of the idols. As an infant, Muhammad was brought before Hubal by his grandfather Abd al-Muttalib, at-Tabari records in The History of the Prophets and Kings 1:157. When Muhammad conquered Mecca in AD 630, he ended the Quraysh's tradition of idol-worship by smashing the statue of Hubal along with the other 360 idols at the Kaaba, and re-dedicated the structure to Allah, the one God.[7]

- Hubal and Allah

There have been suggestions[citation needed] that Hubal was addressed as Allah (from al- + ilah, lit "the god"), the name that would become the term for monotheistic God in Islam. The hypothesis is popularly repeated amongst evangelical Christians, some of which acknowledge that it is speculative[8] In the Battle of Uhud the distinction between the followers of Allah and the followers of Hubal is made clear by the statements of Muhammad and Abu Sufyan. Ibn Hisham narrates in the biography of Muhammad:

When Abu Sufyan wanted to leave he went to the top of the mountain and shouted loudly, saying: "You have done a fine work; victory in war goes by turns. Today in exchange for the day (of Badr). Show your superiority, Hubal," i.e. vindicate your religion. The apostle told Umar to get up and answer him and say: "Allah is most high and most glorious. We are not equal. Our dead are in paradise; your dead are in hell."[9]

- Modern references

In one of Osama bin Laden's messages, he described the United States as "the Hubal of the modern age", alluding to the idol that Muhammad destroyed.[10]

- Notes

1. ^ Hitti, History of the Arabs 1937, pp. 96-101.

2. ^ Corpus Inscriptiones Semit., vol. II: (189 or 198?); Jaussen and Savignac, Mission Archéologique en Arabie, I (1907) pp.169f

3. ^ Maxime Rodinson, Mohammed, 1961, translated by Anne Carter, 1971, p 38-49

4. ^ Wellhausen, 1926, p 717, an unidentified English translation? as quoted by Hans Krause

5. ^ Brother Andrew. Hubal, the moon god of the Kaba. Retrieved on 2007-09-04.

6. ^ Karen Armstrong (2000,2002). Islam: A Short History, 11. ISBN 0-8129-6618-x.

7. ^ Armstrong, p. 23

8. ^ [1]

9. ^ [2]

10. ^ Michael Burleigh. "A murderous message", Evening Standard (London), November 7, 2005.

- External links

* Kitab al-Asnam in the original Arabic (description on p. 5)

* Is Hubal the same as Allah?

* Pre-Islamic Arabia and Its Socio-Religious Conditions

* Maxime Rodinson, Mohammed, 1961, translated by Anne Carter, 1971

Retrieved from ""

Categories: All articles with unsourced statements | Articles with unsourced statements since July 2007 | Arabian gods


Mentioned in the Qur'an (Sura 53:20), Alla-t (a contraction of pre-Arabic *al-ila-hat "the Goddess") was a pre-Islamic Arabian goddess who was one of the three chief goddesses of Mecca. She is one of three goddesses that the pre-Islamic Meccans referred to as "The Daughters of God".

- Descriptions

In the Qur'an, she is mentioned along with ?Uzza- and Mana-t in Sura 53:19-23.

According to Bob Trubshaw, Allat was a triple goddess of the moon, similar to Demeter. She had three aspects, each corresponding to a different phase of the moon: Q're, the crescent or maiden; Al-Uzza, the full moon or mother; and Manat, the waning moon or wise woman. The phase of Al-Uzza was worshipped at the Kaaba and served by seven priestesses. Worshippers circled the stone seven times, once for each of the ancient seven planets.[1]

Her name occurs in early Safaitic graffiti (Safaitic han-'Ila-t "the Goddess") and she was worshipped by the Nabataeans of Petra and the people of Hatra, who equated her with the Greek Athena & the Roman Minerva. According to Wellhausen, they believed Alla-t was the mother of Hubal (and hence the mother-in-law of Mana-t).

The Greek historian Herodotus, writing in the 5th century B.C., considers her the equivalent of Aphrodite:"The Assyrians call Aphrodite Mylitta, the Arabians Alilat, and the Persians Mitra" (Histories I:131). According to Herodotus, the ancient Arabians believed in only two gods: "They believe in no other gods except Dionysus and the Heavenly Aphrodite; and they say that they wear their hair as Dionysus does his, cutting it round the head and shaving the temples. They call Dionysus, Orotalt; and Aphrodite, Alilat." (Histories III:38).

According to the Book of Idols (Kitab al-Asna-m) by Hisha-m b. al-Kalbi, the pre-Islamic Arabs believed Alla-t resided in the Kaaba and also had an idol inside the sanctuary:

Her custody was in the hands of the Banu--Atta-b ibn-Ma-lik of the Thaqi-f, who had built an edifice over her. The Quraysh, as well as all the Arabs, were wont to venerate Alla-t. They also used to name their children after her, calling them Zayd-Alla-t and Taym-Alla-t. [...] Alla-t continued to be venerated until the Thaqi-f embraced Islam, when the Apostle of God dispatched al-Mughi-rah ibn-Shu?bah, who destroyed her and burnt her temple to the ground.

— B. al-Kalbi, N.A. Faris 1952, pp. 14-15

- See also

* Thaqif and Islam

- References

* Ibn al-Kalbi- (Translation and Commentary by Nabih Amin Faris) (1952). Book of Idols, Being a Translation from the Arabic of the Kita-b al-Asna-m. Princeton University Press. Library of Congress #52006741.

* Herodotus (Translated by David Grene) (1987). The History. Chicago University Press. ISBN 0-226-32770-1.

* Bob Trubshaw (February 1993). "The Black Stone - the Omphalos of the Goddess". Mercian Mysteries (No. 14).

* See variant definition for Allat in Encyclopedia Mythica

* The Book of Idols (Kita-b al-Asna-m) by Hisha-m Ibn al-Kalbi-

* Allah, the unique name of God

* Herodotus 1:131 online

* Herodotus 3:8 online

* Sunni account from


Retrieved from ""

Categories: Arabian goddesses | Middle Eastern mythology


Mentioned in the Qur'an (Sura 53:20), al-?uzza- "the Mightiest One" or "the strong" (derived from the root ?zy) was a pre-Islamic Arabian fertility goddess who was one of the three chief goddesses of Mecca. She, Mana-t and al-La-t were known as "the daughters of god". Uzza- was worshipped by the Nabataeans, who equated her with the Graeco-Roman goddesses Aphrodite, Urania, Venus and Caelestis. A stone cube at Ta'if (near Mecca) was held sacred as part of her cult.

Uzza-, like Hubal, was called upon for protection by the pre-Islamic Quraysh. "In 624 at the battle called 'Uhud', the war cry of the Qurayshites was, "O people of Uzza-, people of Hubal!" (Tawil 1993) Uzza also later appears in Ibn Ishaq's account of the Satanic Verses which imply that "the daughters of god" had been temporarily endorsed as intercessors with Allah for Muslims.



* 1 At Petra

* 2 Cult of Uzz

* 3 ?uzza- the Garden

* 4 Links to India

* 5 As an Angel

* 6 References

* 7 External links

- At Petra

The first known mention of Uzza is from the inscriptions at Dedan, the capital of the Lihyanite Kingdom, in the fourth or third century BC. She had been adopted alongside Dushara as the presiding goddess at Petra, the Nabataen capital, where she assimiliated with Isis, Tyche and Aphrodite attributes and superseded her sisters.[1] During the 5th century Christianity became the prominent religion of the region following conquest by Barsauma.[2]

- Cult of Uzz

It is now problematic to get a glimpse of the deities of pre-Islamic Arabia. Origins of deities have to be suggested with caution, but inscriptions related to Uzza- among the Nabataeans at Petra have been interpreted to associate Uzza- with the planet Venus.

According to the Book of Idols (Kita-b al-Asna-m) by Hiša-m b. al-Kalbi- (N.A. Faris 1952, pp. 16-23)

Over her [an Arab] built a house called Buss in which the people used to receive oracular communications. The Arabs as well as the Quraysh were wont to name their children "?Abdu l-Uzza-". Furthermore, Uzza- was the greatest idol among the Quraysh. They used to journey to her, offer gifts unto her, and seek her favours through sacrifice [often of young children] (Jawad Ali, Al-Mufassal Fi Tarikh al-Arab Qabl al-Islam (Beirut), 6:238-9)].

The Quraysh were wont to circumambulate the Ka?bat and say,

By al-La-t and al-?uzza-,

And al-Mana-t, the third idol besides.

Verily they are al-ghara-ni-q

Whose intercession is to be sought.

This last phrase is said to be the source of the aforementioned Satanic Verses; the Arabic term is translated as "most exalted females" by Faris in the text, but he annotates this much-argued term in a footnote as "lit. Numidean cranes."

The Kita-b al-Asna-m offers additional detail on the "three exalted cranes." Ibn Ishaq says were deleted from the Qur'an:

These were also called "the Daughters of God" and were supposed to intercede before God.

It is unclear whether these goddesses were always regarded as the daughters of God, or had originally been called daughters of some other deity; the Kita-b al-Asna-m says that each of the three's worship was introduced at a different period, suggesting that they may not originally even have been sisters.

Each of the three goddesses had a separate shrine near Mecca. The most prominent Arabian shrine of ?uzza- was at a place called Nakhlah near Qudayd, east of Mecca towards Taif; three trees were sacred to her there (according to a narration through al-'Anazi Abu--?ali in the Kita-b al-Asna-m.)

She was the Lady ?uzzayan to whom a South Arabian offered a golden image on behalf of his sick daughter, Amat-?uzzayan ("the Maid of ?uzzayan"). ?abdu l-?uzza- ["Slave of the Mightiest One"] was a favourite proper name at the rise of Islam. (Hitti 1937).

The name ?uzza- appears as an emblem of beauty in late pagan Arabic poetry quoted by Ibn al-Kalbi-, and oaths were sworn by her. [1]

?uzza-'s possible presence in South Arabia has been thoroughly effaced by time but her presence has not been obliterated far north at Petra of the Nabataeans, who had deities with Arabian names early in their history, whom they later associated with Hellenistic gods, ?uzza- becoming associated with Isis and with Aphrodite [2]. Excavations at Petra since 1974 have revealed a temple, apparently dedicated to Isis/?uzza-, now named after some carvings found inside, the Temple of the Winged Lions (Hammond). Inscriptions record the name of ?uzza- at Petra.

A fragment of poetry by Zayd ibn-'Amr ibn-Nufayl, quoted in the Kita-b al-Asna-m, suggests that ?uzza-; had two daughters:

No more do I worship ?uzza- and her two daughters. [Arabic ??? ????? ???? ??? ?????????.]

Muhammad Mohar Ali writes (2002):

The Arabs had developed a number of subsidiary Ka?bat (tawaghit) at different places in the land, each with its presiding god or goddess. They used to visit those shrines at appointed times, circumambulate them and make sacrifices of animals there, besides performing other polytheistic rites. The most prominent of these shrines were those of al-La-t at Ta'if, al-?uzza- at Nakhlah and al-Mana-t near Qudayd. The origins of these idols are uncertain. Ibn al-Kalbi- says that al-La-t was "younger" ('ahdath) than al-Mana-t, while al-?uzza- was "younger" than both al-La-t and al-Mana-t. But though al-?uzza- was thus the youngest of the three; it was nonetheless the most important and the greatest (?azam) idol with the Quraysh who, along with the Banu- Kina-nah, ministered to it.

On the authority of Abdullah ibn Abbas, Al-Tabari derived "al-Uzza-" from Al-Aziz (the Mighty), one of the 99 beautiful names of Allah, in his commentary on Qur'an 7:180 (Hisham Ibn Al-Kalbi, The Book of Idols, 25). Al-La-t is likewise said to have been derived from the very name Alla-h.

- ?uzza- the Garden

According to Easton's Bible Dictionary, Uzza was a garden in which Manasseh and Amon were buried (2 Kings 21:18, 26). It was probably near the king's palace in Jerusalem, or may have formed part of the palace grounds. Manasseh may probably have acquired it from some one of this name.

- Links to India

Aditi Chaturvedi alleges, in "The Vedic past of Pre-Islamic Arabia," that Uzza is an Arab version of the Hindu deity Urja.

- As an Angel

In Judaic and Christian lore Uzza has been also used as an alternative name for the angel Metatron in the Sefer ha-heshek. More commonly he is referred to as either the seraphim Semyaza or as one of the three guardian angels of Egypt (Rahab, Mastema and Duma) that harried the Jews during the exodus.[3] As Semyaza in legend he is the seraph tempted by Ishtahar into revealing the explicit name of God and was thus burned alive and hung head down between heaven and earth as the constellation Orion.[4] In the 3rd book of Enoch and in the Zohar he is one of the fallen angels punished for cohabiting with human women and fathering the anakim.[5] Uzza is also identified with Abezi Thibod ("father devoid of counsel") who in early Jewish lore is also used as another name for Samael and Mastema referring to a powerful spirit who shared princedom of Egypt with Rahab and opposed Moses to eventually drown in the Red sea.[6]


Metatron (Hebrew ?????? or ???????), is the name of an angel in Judaism and some branches of Christianity. There are no references to him in the Jewish Tanakh (Old Testament) or the Christian Scriptures (New Testament). Metatron does appear in later post-scriptural Islamic esoteric and occult sources. There is no consensus as to his genesis or the role that he plays in the hierarchy of Heaven and Hell.

Some sources claim that Metatron was the one preventing Abraham from the sacrifice of Isaac



* 1 Origins

* 2 Etymology

* 3 Metatron's Cube

* 4 In popular culture

* 5 See also

* 6 References

* 7 External links

- Origins

The Talmud has a section in which it claims that Elisha ben Abuyah, also called Aher ("another", as he was an apostate), entered Paradise and saw Metatron sitting down (an action that in heaven is permissible only to God Himself). Elishah ben Abuyah therefore looked to Metatron as a deity and said heretically, "There are indeed two powers in heaven!" The rabbis explain that Metatron was allowed to sit because of his function as the Heavenly Scribe, writing down the deeds of Israel (Babylonian Talmud, Hagiga 15a).

"... the Talmud states, it was proved to Elisha that Metatron could not be a second deity by the fact that Metatron received 60 'strokes with fiery rods' to demonstrate that Metatron was not a god, but an angel, and could be punished." -[1]

In opposition to this apology, Metatron is identified with the term "lesser YHVH", which is the Lesser Tetragrammaton, in a Talmudic version as cited by the Karaite scholar Kirkisani. The word 'Metatron' is numerically equivalent to Shaddai (God) in Hebrew gematria; therefore he is said to have a "Name like his Master." It should be noted, however, that Kirkisani may have misrepresented the Talmud in order to embarrass his Rabbanite opponents with evidence of dualism. On the other hand, extra-talmudic mystical texts (see below regarding Sefer Hekhalot) do speak of a "lesser YHVH," apparently deriving the concept from Exodus 23:21, which mentions an angel of whom God says "My name [understood as YHVH, the usual divine proper name] is in him."

The Babylonian Talmud mentions Metatron in two other places: Sanhedrin 38b and Avodah Zarah 3b. Yevamot 16b describes in the Amoraic period the duties of 'prince of the world' being transferred from Michael to Metatron.

Metatron is also mentioned in the Pseudepigrapha, most prominently in the Hebrew/Merkabah Book of Enoch, also called 3 Enoch or Sefer Hekhalot (Book of [the Heavenly] Palaces). The book describes the link between Enoch son of Jared (great grandfather of Noah) and his transformation into the angel Metatron. His grand title "the lesser YHVH" resurfaces here. Metatron says, "He [the Holy One]… called me, 'The lesser YHVH' in the presence of his whole household in the height, as it is written, 'My name is in him.'" (12:5, Alexander's translation). The narrator of this book, supposedly Rabbi Ishmael, tells how Metatron guided him through Heaven and explained its wonders. Here Metatron is described in two ways: as a primordial angel (9:2–13:2) and as the transformation of Enoch after he was assumed into Heaven.[2][3]

"Enoch walked with God; then he was no more, because God took him away." —Genesis 5:24 NIV.

"This Enoch, whose flesh was turned to flame, his veins to fire, his eye-lashes to flashes of lightning, his eye-balls to flaming torches, and whom God placed on a throne next to the throne of glory, received after this heavenly transformation the name Metatron." - Gershom G. Scholem, Major Trends in Jewish Mysticism (1941/1961) p. 67. Extract of 3 Enoch.

While this identification of Metatron with Enoch is not to be found in the Talmud itself, the connection is assumed by some of the earliest kabbalists. There also seem to be two Metatrons, one spelled with six letters (??????), and one spelled with seven (???????). The former may be the transformed Enoch, Prince of the Countenance within the divine palace; the latter, the Primordial Metatron, an emanation of the "Cause of Causes," specifically the tenth and last emanation, identified with the earthly Divine Presence.[4]

According to Johann Andreas Eisenmenger, Metatron transmits the daily orders of God to the angels Gabriel and Sammael. Metatron is often identified as being the twin brother to Sandalphon, who is said to have been the prophet Elijah.

The Zohar calls Metatron "the Youth" a title previously used in 3 Enoch, where it appears to mean "servant".[3] It identifies him as the angel that led the people of Israel through the wilderness after their exodus from Egypt, and describes him as a heavenly priest.

VM Samael Aun Weor identifies Metatron as the Prophet Enoch, the Angel who provided humanity with the 22 Hebrew letters and the original Tarot, stating that the Angel lives in the superior worlds in the region Aziluth (The Initiatic Path in the Arcana of Tarot and Kabbalah).

- Etymology

There are numerous possible etymologies for the name Metatron; this section lists a few.[5] It should be noted, however, that some scholars such as Philip Alexander believe that if the name Metatron originated in Hekhalot-Merkabah texts (such as 3 Enoch) then it may be a made up word like the magic words Adiriron and Dapdapiron.[6]

Hugo Odeberg,[7] Adolf Jellinek[8] and Marcus Jastrow[9] suggest the name may originate from either "keeper of the watch" ???? or the noun "to guard, to protect" ???n. An early derivation of this can be seen in Shimmusha Rabbah, where Enoch is clothed in light and is the guardian of the souls ascending to heaven. Odeberg also suggests that the name Metatron might be taken from the Persian name Mithras.[7] He lays out a number of parallels between Mithras and Metatron based on their positions in heaven and duties.

Metatron seems to be made up of two Greek words, after and throne, ???? ??ó???, taken together as "one who serves behind the throne" or "one who occupies the throne next to the throne of glory". This has been disputed due to the word ??ó??? not being used in place of the Hebrew word for throne. The two words do not appear in any known text, leading to the belief of Gershom Scholem in particular to dismiss this idea[10] with the words "this widely repeated etymology.... has no merit.".[11]

The word ????????? (synthronos) used as "co-occupant of the divine throne"[12] however like the above etymology it is not found in any source materials.[7] It is supported by Saul Lieberman and Peter Schäfer who give further reasons why this might be a viable etymology.[13][14]

The Latin word Metator (messenger, guide, leader, measurer) had been suggested by Eleazar ben Judah of Worms (c. 1165 - c. 1230), Rabbi Moshe ben Nachman, and brought to light again by Hugo Odeberg.[7] When transliterated into the Hebrew language, we get ?????? or ??????. Gershom Scholem argues that there is no data to justify the conversion of metator to metatron.[11] Philip Alexander also suggests this as a possible origin of Metatron, stating that the word Metator also occurs in Greek as mitator–a word for an officer in the Roman army who acted as a forerunner. Using this etymology, Alexander suggests the name may have come about as a description of "the angel of the Lord who led the Israelites through the wilderness: acting like a Roman army metator guiding the Israelites on their way".[15][16] Another possible interpretation is that of Enoch as a metator showing them "how they could escape from the wilderness of this world into the promised land of heaven". Because we see this as a word in Hebrew, Jewish Aramaic, and Greek, Alexander believes this gives even more strength to this etymology.

Other ideas are ??????a "a measure".[17] Charles Mopsik believes that the name Metatron may be related to the sentence from Genesis 5:24 "Enoch walked with God then he was no more, because God took him."[18] The Greek version of the Hebrew word "to take" is ???????? (it was transferred).[19] ??? meaning RON is a standard addition to ?????? metatron and other angelic names in the Jewish faith. So Mopsik believes if we concentrate on ??? MTT he believes it appears to be a transliteration from the Greek ????????.

In the entry entitled "Paradigmata" in his study, "'The Written' as the Vocation of Conceiving Jewishly", John W McGinley gives an accounting of how this name functions in the Bavli's version of "four entered pardes."[20] This account maintains that "Ishmael ben Elisha" is a Rebbinically sanctioned cognomen for Elisha ben Abbuyah (the "Akher" of the Bavli's account). This hypothesis explains why the generators of the "chambers" portion of the Heikhalot literature make "Ishmael ben Elisha" the major protagonist of their writings even though this Rabbi Ishmael was not directly mentioned in the Bavli's account (in the Gemara to tractate Khaggigah) of "The Work of the Chariot."

Solomon Judah Leib Rapport in Igrot Shir suggests that Meta Tron is a combination of two Greek words which mean to "change" and "pass away" referring to Chanoch who "changed" into an angel and "passed away" from the world.

- Metatron's Cube

Metatron's Cube (an incomplete version that does not contain valid coordinates for the dodecahedron or icosahedron)

Metatron's Cube (an incomplete version that does not contain valid coordinates for the dodecahedron or icosahedron)

The Fruit of Life (a component of the Flower of Life) has thirteen circles. If each circle's center is considered a "node", and each node is connected to each other node with a single line, a total of seventy-eight lines are created. Within this cube, many other shapes can be found, including two-dimensionally flattened versions of the five platonic solids. The true Metatron's Cube will include all 5 platonic solids in such a way that the solids, existing in volumetric 3D space, have had their z-coordinates set to zero but their x- and y-coordinates retained, such that they are orthogonally flattened.

In early kabbalist scriptures, Metatron supposedly forms the cube from his soul. This cube can later be seen in Christian art, where it appears on his chest or floating behind him. Metatron's cube is also considered a holy glyph, and was often drawn around an object or person to ward off demons and satanic powers. This idea is also present in alchemy, in which the cube was favoured as a containment circle or creation circle.

The simplest means of constructing Metatron's Cube is to begin with a cube flattened along a space diagonal, such that it becomes a 2D figure, equivalent to a regular hexagon divided via its own diagonals into six equilateral triangles. The vertices of this 2D figure are then connected with additional lines. Several steps later, the full Metatron's Cube figure is formed.[21] The cube resembles the fourth dimensional analog of the cube, or the Tesseract.


Mana-t was one of the three chief goddesses of Mecca.[1] The pre-Islamic Arabs believed Mana-t to be the goddess of fate and the oldest of the three "Daughters of God". She was known by the cognate name Manawat to the Nabataeans of Petra, who equated her with the Graeco-Roman goddess Nemesis and she was considered the wife of Hubal.[2] She is also mentioned in the Qur'an (Sura 53:20). According to Grunebaum in Classical Islam, the Arabic name of Manat is the linguistic counterpart of the Hellenistic Tyche, Dahr, fateful 'Time' who snatches men away and robs their existence of purpose and value. There are also connections with Chronos of Mithraism and Zurvan mythology.[3] The Book of Idols describes her:

The most ancient of all these idols was Mana-t. The Arabs used to name [their children] 'Abd-Mana-t and Zayd-Mana-t. Mana-t was erected on the seashore in the vicinity of al-Mushallal in Qudayd, between Medina and Mecca. All the Arabs used to venerate her and sacrifice before her. The Aws and the Khazraj, as well as the inhabitants of Medina and Mecca and their vicinities, used to venerate Mana-t, sacrifice before her, and bring unto her their offerings... The Aws and the Khazraj, as well as those Arabs among the people of Yathrib and other places who took to their way of life, were wont to go on pilgrimage and observe the vigil at all the appointed places, but not shave their heads. At the end of the pilgrimage, however, when they were about to return home, they would set out to the place where Mana-t stood, shave their heads, and stay there a while. They did not consider their pilgrimage completed until they visited Mana-t.

—Book of Idols, pp 12-14[4]

The Quraysh (the ruling tribe of Mecca) and other Arabs continued to worship Manat until the time of Muhammad. When Muhammad had to flee Mecca to go to Medina, in what was known as the Hijra, the year that began the Islamic calendar, it was said that his son-in-law Ali ibn Abi Talib demolished the Manat idol, took away all her treasures, and carried them back to the Prophet. Among the treasures were two swords which had been presented to Mana-t by al-Harith ibn Abi--Shamir al-Ghassa-ni-, the king of Ghassa-n. The swords were named Mikhdham and Rasu-b.


Qahtani (Arabic: ?????; transliterated: Qahtan) refers to al Aribah' or the Semites who inhabited Yemen.



* 1 Qahtan origins

* 2 The Pre Sabaean Semitic migration out of Arabia

o 2.1 Early Linguistic connection

o 2.2 Ancient Semitic Villages

* 3 The Pre Islamic Qahtani migration out of Arabia

o 3.1 The Ghassanids 250AD

* 4 After Islam

* 5 Sources

- Qahtan origins

Medieval Arabs traditions have maintained Qahtan as the origin of the Arabs. According to their own tradition, the legendary forefather of all South Arabians is Qahtan and his 24 sons. Qahtan can be identified with the Biblical Joktan, a descendant of Shem (first son of Noah) of the fourth generation. Among the sons of Qahtan are famous names like A'zaal (believed by Arabs to have been the original name of Sana'a, although its current name is attested since the Iron Age) and Hadhramaut. Another son is Ya'rub and his son Yashjub is the father of Abd Shams, who is also called Saba. All Yemeni tribes, trace their ancestry back to this Saba, either through Himyar or Kahlan, his two sons.

- The Pre Sabaean Semitic migration out of Arabia

Concern has been expressed that a significant amount of this article actually concerns an entirely different subject.

See coatrack articles and content forking for details.

Please see the discussion on the talk page.

A study by the controversial Kamal Salibi connects Israel and the biblical events to Yemen instead of Palestine and Egypt, he depended on linguistic evidence from rural dialects in Yemen and old villages names that has close similarity to biblical names and outnumbers those found in the North. Most modern historians continue to believe that the state of Israel described in the Bible was located in the Levant and not Arabia.

- Early Linguistic connection

The First groups of Semites that moved North already developed the early Semitic names derived from triliteral and sometimes a quadriliteral verb root that will first appear in Early now extinct East Semitic languages Akkadian (Assyrian and Babylonian) names and villages. And a more closer connection with Central Semitic Family that evolved into: Aramiac, Phoenician, Hebrew, Nabatean that was very closely related to the Southern Semitic group Minaean, Sabaean, Qatabanian, Awsanian, Hadhramaut, Himyarite.

- Ancient Semitic Villages

Names in the Bible and recorded history that correspond with names of villages and places in modern Yemen and Asir in Southern Saudi Arabia).

* Adeem, Yadoom , Damt from the verb D/a/m (to last)

* Aram, Arm, Yareem, Maryama from the verb A/r/m (to stand above)

* Yafe'e, Mayfa'a, Ayfo'o from the verb Y/f/a (to grow)

* Aden Settled, Yahosn Lost

* Thobhan, Mathbah Slaughtered,

* Yomin, Yamant South/Blessed

* Yahir to destroy

* Yaghshom, Ghashm to rain

* Yaslih to fix/leak

* Marbad , Arbad the verb R/b/d to spread

- The Pre Islamic Qahtani migration out of Arabia

The early Semites who managed to build civilizations in Mesopotamia and Syria slowly lost their Political absoloute domination of the ancient Near East due to internal turmoil and constant attacks by new nomadic Semitic and Non Semitic groups which climaxed with the arrival of the Medians to the East of Mesopotamia and the incorporte the Neo Babylonians. Although the Semites lost political control the Aramiac language continued to be the lingua Franca of Mesopotamia and Syria. Thus, Aramiac eventually lost is day to day use with the defeat of the Persians and the arrival of the Hellenic armies 330BC.

- The Ghassanids 250AD

the Ghassanids were the latest major non Islamic Semitic migration out of Yemen to the North, They revived the Semitic presence in the then Roman Nabatian controlled Syria they mainly settled the Hauran region and they spread from there to the modern Lebanon, Palestine and Jordan. They took the governership of Syria from the Nabatians and completely Arabized the Nabatian Aramaic language.

- After Islam

Between the 7th and the 14th century, the Arabs had forged an empire that extended their rule from Spain and southern France in the west, to western China in the east. During that time, Arabs, including Qahtanite tribes, spread over these lands and mixed with their native populations while keeping their identity clear. It is not unlikely to find Arabs of Qahtanite descent as far away as Morocco or Iran and many can trace their lineage to a very accurate level. Among the most famous examples of Qahtanite Arabs is the social scholar Ibn Khaldun who was born in Tunisia to a family that immigrated from Islamic Spain (Al-Andalus).

- Sources

* Abdulaziz Almsaodi, Ancient Yemeni Studies.

* John Simpson, Treasures from Ancient Yemen

* Qahtan in the Arab History

Retrieved from ""

Categories: NPOV disputes | Arab groups | Tribes of Arabia | History of Yemen | Yemeni people


"Hedjaz" redirects here. For the Hedjaz meteorite of 1910, see meteorite falls.

al-Hejaz (also Hijaz, Hedjaz; Arabic: ?????? al-H.ig(a-z, literally "the barrier") is a region in the west of present-day Saudi Arabia. Defined mostly by the Red Sea, it extends from Haql on the Gulf of Aqaba to Jizan. Its main city is Jeddah, but it is probably better-known for the Islamic holy cities of Mecca and Medina. As a region, The Hijaz, as it is often referred to, because of being the site of Islam's holy places, has significance in the Arab and Islamic historical and political landscape. In Arabic, Hejaz means literally "the barrier" as it separates the land of Najd in the east from the land of Tihamah in the west.



* 1 History

* 2 Geography

o 2.1 Cities

* 3 See also

* 4 References

- History

Evidence suggests the Hejaz (or parts of it) was part of the Roman province of Arabia [1]. Under the control of regional powers such as Egypt or the Ottoman Empire through most of its history, the Hejaz had a brief period of political independence in the early 20th century. It was one of several regions of the Ottoman Empire provoked into rebellion by T. E. Lawrence ("of Arabia") of the British during World War I. In 1916 its independence was proclaimed by Sherif Hussein ibn Ali, the Sherif of Makkah. In 1924, however, ibn Ali's authority was usurped by Ibn Saud of the neighboring region of Nejd and became known as the Kingdom of Hijaz and Nejd and later the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Even today, Hejazis adhere to a more moderate interpretation of Islam than does the Wahhabi sect that arose in Nejd.[2]

The Biblical story of the Garden of Eden is in Genesis 2:11: "And a river went out of Eden to water the garden; and from thence it was parted, and became into four heads. The name of the first is Pison: that is it which compasseth the whole land of Havilah, where there is gold; And the gold of that land is good: there is bdellium and the onyx stone."

Havilah is usually associated with either the Arabian Peninsula or north-west Yemen, but in the work associated with the Garden of Eden by Juris Zarins, the Hejaz mountains appear to satisfactorily meet the description. The Hejaz includes both the Cradle of Gold at Mahd adh Dhahab ( [show location on an interactive map] 23°30?12.96?N, 40°51?34.92?E) and a potential source of the now dried out Pishon River that used to flow 600 miles north east to to the Persian Gulf via the Wadi Al-Batin system. Archaeological research lead by Farouk El-Baz of Boston University indicates that the river system, now prospectively known as the Kuwait River, was active 2,500-3000BC[3]. Bdellium plants are also abundant in the Hijaz.

- Geography

Geographically, the region is located along the Great Rift Valley. The region is also known for it darker more volcanic sand. Depending on the previous definition, Hejaz includes the high mountains of Sarawat which topographically separate Najd from Tehamah.

- Cities

Map showing location within Saudi Arabia

Map showing location within Saudi Arabia

* Jeddah

* Makkah al-Mukarramah

* Medina

* Ta’if

* Yanbu' al Bahr

* Al Bahah

* Tabuk

* Badr Hunayn

* Rabigh

- See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:


* Hejazi Accent

* Hejazi turban

* Kingdom of Hejaz

* Hejaz railway

* Hijaz is also the name of a mode (maqam) in Arabic music.

- References

1. ^ Kesting, Piney (May/June 2001). Well of Good Fortune. Saudi Aramco. Retrieved on 2007-03-20.

2. ^ James Minahan (2002), Encyclopedia of the Stateless Nations: Ethnic and National Groups Around the World (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press).

3. ^ The Pishon River - Found. by C.A. Salabach at Focus Magazine


Mo's first victims

Quraysh or Quraish (Arabic: ???? transliteration: Qurayš. Other transliterations include "Quresh", "Quraysh", "Koreish" and "Coreish". Turkish: Kureys,. Albanian: Korreshi) was the dominant tribe of Mecca upon the appearance of the religion of Islam. It was both the tribe to which the Islamic Prophet Muhammad belonged and as well as the tribe that led the initial opposition to his message.



* 1 Lineage

* 2 Early history

* 3 Arab lineages

* 4 Clans

* 5 Leaders of the Quraish

* 6 Muhammad's Tribe

* 7 Clans and the Caliphate

* 8 Hawk of Quraish

* 9 See also

* 10 References

* 11 External links

- Lineage

The Quraish was a branch of the Kinana branch, which descended from the Khuzaimah, which descended from Elias bin Mudar, who descended from Adnan. The Quraish remained completely disunited until Qusai bin Kilab managed to rally their ranks on honourable terms attaching major prominence to their status and importance[clarify].[1] After the introduction of Islam, the Quraish gained supremacy and produced the three dynasties of the Ummayads, Abbasids and Fatimides, which ruled as Caliphs.

- Early history

For several generations the Quraish were spread about among other tribal groupings. About five generations before Muhammad the situation was changed by Qusai ibn Kilab. By war and diplomacy he assembled an alliance that delivered to him the possession of the Meccan Sanctuary (the Kaaba). He then gathered his fellow tribesmen to settle at Mecca, where he enjoyed such adulation from his kin that they adjudged him their de facto king, a position that was enjoyed by no other descendant of his.

- Arab lineages

According to traditional legends, Arab lineages allegedly originate from three groups:

1. Perished Arabs (????? ???????): These are the ancients of whose history little is known. They include ‘Ad, Thamûd, Tasam, Jadis, Imlaq and others.

2. Pure Arabs (????? ???????): They allegedly originated from the progeny of Ya‘rub bin Yashjub bin Qahtan bin Hud so were also called Qahtanian Arabs.

3. Arabized Arabs (????? ?????????): They allegedly originated from the progeny of Ishmael and were also called ‘Adnanian Arabs. The Quraish are a branch of the "Arabized Arabs".

The Quraish had become a prominent tribe in Mecca before the birth of Muhammad and essentially ruled the city. Before Muhammad's birth, the tribe had split into different clans, each with different responsibilities. There were some rivalries among the clans, but these became especially pronounced during Muhammad's lifetime. Some clan leaders did not appreciate Muhammad's claim of prophethood and tried to silence him by putting pressure on his uncle, Abu Talib. Many of the clans also began to persecute the followers of Muhammad, for example by boycotting them. This response led Muhammad to initially send some Muslims to Ethiopia, and later would lead to his own emigration to Medina.

After Muhammad's conquest of Mecca in 630, he pardoned many of those who had oppressed him before, and peace among the different clans was maintained. After Muhammad's death, clan rivalries reignited, playing central roles in the conflicts over the Caliphate and contributing to the Shi'a-Sunni divide.

- Clans

Quraish branched out into various sub-clans, who in turn branched out into yet further sub-clans. Roughly the division corresponded to the family lines of the current chieftain of that clan having sons.

* Banu Quraish — Quraish was divided into several sub-clans.

* Banu Abd-al-dar — sub-clan of Quraish

* Banu Abd al-Manaf — sub-clan of Quraish

* Banu Nawfal — sub-clan of Banu Abd Manaf, clan of Mut`im ibn ‘Adi[1]

* Banu Muttalib — sub-clan of Banu Abd Manaf

* Banu Hashim — sub-clan of Banu Abd Manaf, clan of Muhammad and Ali.

* Banu Abd Shams — sub-clan of Banu Abd Manaf, parent clan of Banu Umayyad.

* Banu Umayyah — sub-clan of Banu Abd Shams, clan of Abu Sufyan and Uthman ibn Affan

* Banu Makhzum — sub-clan of Quraish, clan of Khalid ibn al-Walid

* Banu Zuhrah — sub-clan of Quraish, clan of Sa'ad ibn Abi Waqqas

* Banu Taim — sub-clan of Quraish, clan of Abu Bakr

* Banu Adi — sub-clan of Quraish, clan of Umar ibn al-Khattab

* Banu Asad — sub-clan of Quraish, clan of Abd-Allah ibn al-Zubayr and Khadijah

* Banu Mustaliq — sub-clan of Banu Khuza'a,

(uncategorized Quraish sub-clans)

* Banu Jumah

* Banu Sahm - Amr ibn al-As

* Banu Zahra

- Leaders of the Quraish

The leaders of Quraysh, who formed Mecca's aristocracy upon the appearance of Muhammad, were referred to as the Leaders of the Quraysh (Arabic: Sadat Quraysh).

A list of them include:

* Utba ibn Rabi'ah

* Abu Lahab

* Abu Sufyan ibn Harb

* Mughirah ibn Abd-Allah

* Abu Jahl.[2]

* Umayyah ibn Khalaf[2]

* Suhayl ibn Amr[3]

* Akhnas ibn Shariq[3]

- Muhammad's Tribe

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Arabia at the time of Muhammad, in the 7th century AD, was a nation of tribes who had no central government; this was most beneficial in one way: since there was no nation in the usual sense, Arabia was one of the very few nations that had never been subjugated. Arabia then was divided into 3 portions: 1) Arabia Petra, the north of the peninsula; 2) Arabia Deserta, the middle desert region called the Rub al Khali; and 3) Arabia Felix, the prosperous southern regions. Most of the Arabs were Bedawi (Bedouin) Arabs. Trading cities were not unknown, in fact some cities were thriving trading centers, like Mecca and Medina; and within these centers were council houses which transacted the issues that were put before it. Here again the tribe and its position were of prime importance: the most powerful tribe had the most say in the council and smaller tribes signed treaties for protection. Arabia lived a life of plundering caravans that passed through their areas.Template:Selections from the Quran: E. W. Lane pg. xvi;

The races that have peopled Arabia are considered under the following names:

1. al-Arab-ul-Baidah, meaning ‘the lost Arabs’: these are the races that no longer exist but are referenced in traditional songs and written about in folklore;

2. al-Arab-ul-Ariba meaning ‘the pure Arabs’: these are the tribes that are considered to have been descended from Qahtan, who is in turn traced to have been descended from Noah’s son Shem;

3. al-Arab-al-Mustariba meaning ‘the mixed Arabs’: this line of Arabs traced their line to Ishmael, the son of the prophet Abraham, who migrated and married to the Arab-ul-Ariba of Mecca. Muhammad’s line is traced to Kedar, one of the sons of Ishmael.

Abraham was the prophet after Noah (and Noah was after Adam) to have been inspired by the word of God. He had two sons Isaac and Ishmael. Isaac is the father of the Jews and Ishmael is the father of the Quraishi Arabs. It is believed that the word Arab comes from Yereb, who was one of the descendants of Qahtan, the originator of the 2nd type of Arabs: Arab-ul-Ariba.

Within the tribes they were sub-divided into various families, with each family being identified by the name of the patriarch; for example: Muhammad belonged to the Quresh tribe and within that tribe he was of the Beni Hashim clan; within the tribe of Quraish there were numerous other family clans that made up the Quraish. ‘Beni’ means ‘children of’, hence the name Beni Hashim means ‘the family, or children of Hashim’.

Hashim was the name of Muhammad’s great grand father. His tribe, the Quraishis, were of the third kind of Arabian tribes – Arab-al-Mustariba, the ones who traced their lineage back to Ishmael, the son of Abraham. Due to this fact of their ancestry, that the Quraish were the tribe that traditionally provided food and water to the pilgrims who visited the Kaaba in Mecca, because they believed that the Kaaba was constructed by Abraham and his son Ishmael. The family tree of Muhammad has been traced by the Arabian scholars back 21 generations to a patriarch called Adnan, who is their link to Ishmael bin Abraham. The time span of this ancestry goes back 660 years backward from the birth of Muhammad in the year 570 AD.

The fortunes of this tribe waxed and waned, and to be honest: the history that is provided for the time period before the birth of Christ is not very trustworthy. At the dawn of the Christian era the authority of the Quraish was usurped by another tribe called the Jurhum. The Juhrum belonged to the tribe of the pure Arabs as against the Kuresh who were the mixed Arabs. They were in control of Mecca till the 3rd century till another tribe called the Khozaa dislodged the Jhurum from their place. Before retreating from Mecca, they filled up the Zamzam well that lay in the vicinity of the Kaaba.

The Khozaa tribe hung on till the mid of the 5th century, when there appeared on the Quraishi horizon a man named Qusai, and he vowed to return the Quraish their rightful place of command in Mecca. Qusai won the fight. Qusai was the 4th generation grand father of Muhammad and the grand father of Hashim. The name Quraish signifies a shark or big sea creature, and thus a connotation for power and strength. Quosai expanded the city of Mecca and gathered all his kinfolk around him. He gave each of them special quarters in the city. He built a council hall near the Kaaba for the transaction of important business. As the custodian of the Kaaba, Qusai assumed five important functions:

1. possession of the keys of, and to, the Kaaba 2. distribution of food and water to the pilgrims. (the Kaaba was a center of Arabian worship and veneration centuries before the advent of Islam) 3. command of the troops in war 4. affixment of the standard and giving it to the standard bearer in times of war 5. presidency of the council in Mecca.

All this achieved, Qusai became the Sherif of Mecca and chief of the surrounding areas.

Included among the sons of Qusai were: Abd-ad-Dar, Abd-al-Ozza and Abd Menaf. As Qusai aged, he transferred the rights of his office to his son Abd-ad-Dar. The tenure of Abd-ad-Dar and his sons passed without incident, and time came for the grandsons of Abd-ad-Dar come to the helm. His grandsons were very young and were unable to carry out the functions of the office of the Sherif of Mecca. Abd Menaf, a brother of Abd-ad-Dar and another son of Qusai, plotted with his sons to wrest the office from the hands of the grandsons of Abd-ad-Dar. They put their claim before the Quraish tribal council and demanded to be put in charge of the office of the Sherif of Mecca. The members of the council were equally divided over the matter and no decision could be reached. It seemed that a bloody clash would ensue, when, unexpectedly a truce was called between the warring factions of the grand sons of Abd-ad-Dar and the sons of his brother Abd Menaf.

Among Abd Menaf's sons were: Hashim, Abd Shams (the Muslim legends say that there were joined at birth and severed with a stroke of the sword), Naufal and Al-Muttalib. Hashim, the son of Abd Menaf, was given the prestigious task of providing food and water to the pilgrims and the rest was retained by the grandsons of Abd-ad-Dar. Peace was called. As the years passed the prosperity of Hashim grew on account of his commercial endeavors and his fame grew because of his unparalleled generosity. His growing fame and wealth were like a thorn in the side of Omeya. Omeya was the son of Abd Shams - another son of Abd Menaf and brother to Hashim. Like Hashim had challenged the office holder before sitting in it, Omeya challenged Hashim, his uncle, to a test of superiority. What this test of superiority was the books don’t say, suffice to say that Hashim won the test and this resulted in Omeya going into exile for ten years after a payment of 50 camels. Hashim married, and his wife bore a son, and went to live in Medina with her new born son. On his death bed Hashim transferred his office to his brother Al-Muttalib. When Hashim son, Shayba, attained maturity, his uncle Al-Muttalib- brother of Hashim –went to Medina to get him to Mecca. Wandering in the streets of Mecca someone called Hashims son ‘Abd al-Muttalib’ meaning ‘servant of Muttalib’; the name stuck on and henceforth Hashims son was called Abd al-Muttalib. In due course Abd al-Muttalib was given his fathers, Hashim’s property and this was vehemently opposed by Naufal, the brother of Al-Muttalib and Hashim. Abd al-Muttalib was violently deprived of his rights by his uncle Naufal. Abd al-Muttalib appealed in vain to the tribal elders, but this was to no avail. He then beseeched the tribe of his mother Selma to help him. They responded and 80 riders came to his rescue. Naufal was subdued and the rights of Abd al-Muttalib were restored to him.

In time Abd al-Muttalib succeeded to the office of providing food and water to the pilgrims; this office at that time lacked the power and influence that it enjoyed in earlier times; and coupled with the fact that he had only one son, Abd al-Muttalib found it difficult to counter the factional friction that was ever present. It was at this time that Abd al-Muttalib found the well of Zam Zam that the Jurum tribe had filled up when they were forced out by the Khozaa tribe in the 3rd century AD, about 300 years before the time of Abd al-Muttalib. The discovery of this well changed his fortunes. He became the father of many sons and his fortunes grew until he was regarded as the virtual chief of Mecca. A promise that he had made to his deities began to take precedence at the back of his mind: he had promised that if the deities gave him ten sons he would sacrifice one son to them. He decided to choose the son by drawing lots. The lot fell on his son Abdullah. He tried to seek a compromise by offering the sacrifice of ten camels instead of Abdullah. But the lot again fell on Abdullah; Abd al-Muttalib kept increasing the number of camels by ten until it finally reached to one hundred. Now the lot fell on the camels and Abdullah was spared. In any case the life of Abdullah was short lived. After getting married to a woman called Amina, he went for a commercial enterprise to Gaza; his wife at time was pregnant. Abdullah died on that journey, a few months later his widow gave birth to a son. The name of that son was Muhammad, the prophet of Islam. The prosperity of Abd al-Muttalib, the current patriarch of the Beni Hashim, invited the envy again of Omeya, the representative of the family of Abd Shams. This time Harb, the son of Omeya challenged Abd al-Muttalib to a contest of superiority; like his father he too lost and was exiled; but this event cemented the rivalry between the two families. When Abd-al-Muttalib died he was survived by his remaining six sons; he had bequeathed his office to the his son Az Zubeir; he, unable to function the office of providing food and water to the pilgrims, gave the office to his brother Abi Talib. Abi Tailb was the foster father of Muhammad and father of the celebrated Ali of Islamic history. Abi Talib too was unable to manage the office and he, in turn surrendered it to Al Abbas. During the office of Al Abbas the fortunes of the Beni Hashim deteriorated, and he was compelled to give the right of providing food up to another family. Such was the state of the families of Quraish at the time of birth of Muhammad the prophet of [Islam]. The Quraish also stretch to modern day Somaliland because it is known in Somali legends that there was a Sheikh called SheikhIsaaq bin Ahmad from the BanuHashim branch of the Quraish who went to the north coast of modern day Somaliland he had eight sons there and know Somalis know his descendants are knon as (reer sheikh Ishaaq) in somali which means family of Sheikh Ishaaq.

Muhammad was sent to the tribe of Sa’d for the first four or five years of his childhood. On returning to Mecca, his grand father Abd al-Muttalib took care of him. But he died just two years later; while dying he entreated his son Abi Talib to take care of the young Muhammad. The word Muhammad come from the word ‘hamda’, which means ‘the praised’. Rivalries between the family of Abd Shams and the family of Hashim was a vortex which Muhammad was to face and finally counter in the earliest days of Islam.

- Clans and the Caliphate

The split between the Shi'a and Sunni branches of Islam centers over the succession to Muhammad. The Sunnis believe Abu Bakr was elected as Muhammad's successor while the Shi'a (literally "party of Ali") believe Muhammad appointed Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor.

Ali was a member of Muhammad's clan, the Banu Hashim. Abu Bakr, while a close companion of Muhammad, came from the Banu Taim clan.

The second Caliph, Umar ibn al-Khattab, was from the Banu Adi clan.

The third Caliph, Uthman ibn Affan, was from the Banu Umayyad clan.

When Ali was made caliph after the death of Uthman, the Caliphate was in the hands of the Banu Hashim, but he was almost immediately challenged by Muawiyah, who was a member of the Umayyad clan. After Ali's assassination at the hands of the Kharajites, the Shi'a hoped his son Hasan would become Caliph, but he deferred to Muawiyah, who established the Umayyad line of Caliphs.

After the death of Muawiyah, his son Yazid became Caliph but was almost immediately challenged by Ali's younger son, Hussein, who would not swear allegiance to Yazid for a number of reasons, among which that the Caliphate was not supposed to be hereditary, and that Yazid was said to be corrupt. Yazid's forces were stronger than those of Hussein and Hussein was killed at the Battle of Karbela. This event would ultimately lead to a full schism between Shi'a Islam and Sunni Islam.

The fact that Muhammad's descendants through Ali would be persecuted by Umayyad Caliphs did not help the matter.

- Hawk of Quraish

The Hawk of Quraish[citation needed] is an Islamic symbol (see also Rub El Hizb) which is found on a number of emblems and flags. These include:

* The coat of arms of Kuwait

* The coat of arms of Libya

* The coat of arms of Sudan

* The coat of arms of Syria

* The coat of arms of the United Arab Emirates

* The Flag of Egypt from 1972 to 1984

- See also

* Quraishi

* Hashemi

- References

1. ^ GLUBB, John Bagot, The Life and Times of Mohammed, in A Restatement of the History of Islam and Muslims, chapter "Muhammad's Visit to Ta'if",

2. ^ a b Sahih Bukhari 5:59:286

3. ^ a b M Pacuk.

Muhammad's Tribe: (References)

Life of Mohamet: Sir William Muir: 1894 edn / A Dictionary of Islam: Thomas Patrick Hughes: 1885 edition / Foundations of Islam: Benjamin Walker / Muhammad: Karen Armstrong / A History of Muslim Philosophy: M. M. Sharif / Selections from The Quran: Edward William Lane. 1890 edn. / Muhammad: The Benefactor of Mankind: Naseem Sadiqui. 1994 / Life of Muhammad (Translation of Ibn Ishaq's Sirat): A. Guillaume. 2004 /

- External links


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Roy Harbin


The Evil White Man

The Staks

Roy L. Harbin