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~Enochian angels entities as expressed in the Enochian magic system, introduced by John Dee (1507-1608) and Edward Kelley (1555-1597) in the 16th century.

John Dee was dedicated to the newly-formed Church of England (or the Anglican Faith), and this can be seen throughout his journals and his "Enochian" system of Angel Magick. Therein, we find an obvious belief in the Trinity (Father, Son and Holy Spirit). We also find a fourth Supreme Being in the figure of "Galvah" (Omega)- who is also called the Mother, Wisdom and "I AM" in Dee's journals. This figure is known in Judaism as the Shekhinah- Divine Presence; to the Gnostics as Sophia- Wisdom; to the Hermetic Qabalah as Aima Elohim- Mother of the Gods; and to Catholicism as Mary, Mother of God.

Beneath these four Divinities are several hierarchies of angels, or intelligent rulers, set over such things as the Planets, the Stars and the four Quarters of the Earth.

The angels of the four quarters are symbolized by the "Watchtowers"- four large magickal word-square Tables (collectively called the Great Table of the Earth). Most of the well-known Enochian Angels are drawn from the Watchtowers of the Great Table.

Each of the four Watchtowers is collectively governed by six Seniors (aka Elders)- making a total of 24 Elders as seen in the Revelation of St. John. Each Watchtower is further divided into four sub-quadrants, where we find the names of various Archangels and Angels who govern the quarters of the world. In this way, the entire universe, visible and invisible, is teeming with living intelligences.

Below is a partial list of the Enochian Angels taken from the Watchtowers:

Contents: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

- A

* Aaan: A minor angel.

* Aadt: A minor angel.

* Aaetpio: A senior of Fire associated with Mars.

* Aanaa: A minor angel.

* Aaodt: A minor angel.

* Aaoxaif: A sub-angelic Watchtower leader in the East.

* Aavan: A minor angel.

* Aavna: A minor angel.

* Aax: A cacodemon.

* Abamo: A minor angel.

* Abaoz: A minor angel.

* Abmo: A minor angel ruled by Aiaoai Oiiit.

* Aboz: A minor angel.

* Acar: A minor angel ruled by Rzionr Nrzfm.

* Acca: A minor angel.

* Acmbicu: A senior of Air associated with Mercury.

* Acps: A minor angel.

* Acrar: A minor angel.

* Acuca: A minor angel.

* Acups: A minor angel.

* Aczinor: A senior of Earth associated with Jupiter.

* Adi: A cacodemon.

* Adire: A minor angel.

* Adnop: A minor angel.

* Adoeoct: A senior of Fire associated with Jupiter.

* Adop: A minor angel.

* Adopa: A minor angel.

* Adota: A minor angel.

* Adre: A minor angel.

* Adta: A minor angel.

* Agb: A cacodemon.

* Aglm: A minor angel.

* Agmlm: A minor angel.

* Ahaozpi: A sub-angelic Watchtower leader in the East.

* Aiaoai Oiiit: The divine name ruling the sub-element Earth elementin Air.

* Aigra: A minor angel.

* Aira: A minor angel with power over medicine. Aira is ruled by Angpoi Unman.

* Amox: A minor angel skilled in finding metals and precious stones, ruled by Vadali Obava.

* Amsox: A minor angel.

* Ancro: A minor angel.

* Anvaa: A minor angel.

* Apa: A cacodemon.

* Apahr: A minor angel.

* Apdoce: A senior of Fire associated with Mercury.

* Aphr: A minor angel.

* Aplst: A minor angel.

* Apm: A cacodemon.

* Apst: A minor angel.

* Arizl: A minor angel.

* Arzl: A minor angel.

* Ataad: A minor angel.

* Atdim: A minor angel.

* Ato: A cacodemon.

* Avtotar: A sub-angelic Watchtower leader in the East.

- B

* Bataivah: King of the Air Tablet.

* Brap: A minor angel, skilled at locating precious metals (also known as Briap).

* Briap: An alternative name for the angel Brap.

* Brcn: A minor angel.

- C

* Cadaamp: An angelic king, ruling in the North-North-West.

* Cms: A cacodemon.

* Cnabr: A minor angel.

* Cnbr: A minor angel.

* Cpsa: A minor angel.

* Cpusa: A minor angel.

- D

* Diari: A minor angel.

* Dimt: A minor angel.

* Dimnt: A minor angel.

* Diom: A minor angel.

* Diri: A minor angel.

* Dixom: A minor angel.

* Dolop: A minor angel.

* Donpa: A minor angel.

* Doop: A minor angel ruled by Cbalpt Arbiz.

* Dopa: A minor angel.

* Dtaa: A minor angel.

* Dtoaa: A minor angel.

* Dxagz: A minor angel.

* Dxgz: A minor angel.

- E

* Eac: A cacodemon.

* Eboza: A minor angel.

* Ecaop: A minor angel.

* Ecop: A minor angel.

* Edlprnaa: King of the Fire Tablet.

* Ephra: A minor angel.

* Erg: A cacodemon.

* Ern: A cacodemon.

* Erzla: A minor angel.

* Eutpa: A minor angel.

* Exarp: A spirit of the Air.

* Exr: A cacodemon.

- F

* Faax: A minor angel.

- G

* Gbal: A minor angel.

* Gbeal: A minor angel.

* Glma: A minor angel.

* Glmma: A minor angel.

* Gmdnm: A minor angel.

- H

* Habioro: A sub-angelic Watchtower leader in the East.

* Hbr: A cacodemon.

* Hcnbr: A minor angel.

* Hcoma: The spirit of Water.

* Hipotga: A sub-angelic Watchtower leader in the East.

* Hraap: A minor angel.

* Hrap: A minor angel.

* Hroan: A minor angel.

* Hru: A minor angel.

* Htmorda: The senior element of Air associated with the Moon.

* Hua: A cacodemon.

* Hxgzd: A minor angel.

- I

* Iczhhcal: King of the Earth Tablet.

* Imntd: A minor angel.

* Imtd: A minor angel.

* Izaz: A minor angel.

* Izinr: A minor angel.

* Izixp: A minor angel.

* Iznr: A minor angel.

* Izraz: A minor angel.

* Izxp: A minor angel.

- L

* Lairz: A minor angel.

* Lang: The order of ministering angels.

* Laoaxrp: A sub-angelic Watchtower leader in the North.

* Larz: A minor angel.

* Lavavoth: The angelic king of the South-Southwest.

* Leaoc: A minor angel.

* Leoc: A minor angel.

* Levanael: The angel of Luna.

* Ligdisa: A sub-angelic Watchtower leader in the North.

* Lmag: A minor angel.

* Lmmag: A minor angel.

* Lsraphm: A sub-angelic Watchtower leader in the North.

- M

* Masgm: A minor angel.

* Mgam: A minor angel.

* Miz: A cacodemon.

* Mma: A cacodemon.

* Msal: A minor angel.

* Msmal: A minor angel.

* Mtdi: A minor angel.

* Mtndi: A minor angel.

* Mto: A cacodemon.

- N

* Naaa: A minor angel.

* Nanta: A minor angel.

* Naoo: A minor angel.

* Naooo: A minor angel.

* Navaa: A minor angel.

* Nbarc: A minor angel.

* Nbrc: A minor angel.

* Ndazn: A minor angel.

* Ndzn: A minor angel.

* Nhdd: A minor angel.

* Nhodd: A minor angel.

* Nlirx: A minor angel.

* Nlrx: A minor angel.

* Npat: A minor angel.

* Nrcoa: A minor angel.

* Nroa: A minor angel.

- O

* Oacnr: A minor angel.

* Oanr: A minor angel.

* Oap: A cacodemon.

* Obgota Aabco: The Divine name ruling the sub-element Air in Water.

* Ocnm: A minor angel.

* Omagg: A minor angel.

* Omgg: A minor angel.

* Omia: A minor angel.

* Omsia: A minor angel.

* Ona: A cacodemon.

* Onh: A cacodemon.

* Onp: A cacodemon.

* Oodpz: A minor angel.

* Oopz: A minor angel.

* Opad: A minor angel.

* Opamn: A minor angel.

* Opama: A minor angel.

* Opmn: A minor angel.

* Opna: A minor angel.

* Opnad: A minor angel.

* Ormn: A minor angel.

* Oro Ibah Aozpi: A holy name ruling fire.

* Orpmn: A minor angel.

* Otoi: A minor angel.

* Otroi: A minor angel.

* Oyaub: A minor angel.

* Oyub: A minor angel.

* Ozaab: A minor angel.

* Ozab: A minor angel.

- P

* Paco: A minor angel.

* Pado: A minor angel.

* Paeoc: A minor angel.

* Paico: A minor angel.

* Piz: A cacodemon.

* Pmagl: A minor angel.

* Pmox: A minor angel.

* Pmzox: A minor angel.

* Ppsac: A minor angel.

- R

* Raagiosl: King of the Water Tablet.

* Raph: A minor angel.

* Rbnh: A minor angel.

* Rbznh: A minor angel.

* Rcanb: A minor angel.

* Rcnb: A minor angel.

* Rda: A minor angel.

* Rgan: A minor angel.

* Rgoan: A minor angel.

* Rlemu: A minor angel.

* Rlmu: A minor angel.

* Rpa: A cacodemon.

* Rrb: A cacodemon.

* Rrl: A cacodemon.

* Rsi: A cacodemon.

* Rsni: A minor angel.

* Rsoni: A minor angel.

* Ruoi: A minor angel.

* Ruroi: A minor angel.

* Rxao: A minor angel.

* Rxinl: A minor angel.

* Rxnl: A minor angel.

* Rxp: A cacodemon.

* Rxpao: A minor angel.

* Rzila: A minor angel.

* Rzla: A minor angel.

* Rzionr Nrzfm: The Divine name ruling the sub-element Fire of Fire.

- S

* Saiinou: A sub-angelic Watchtower leader in the North.

* Saiinov: The senior leader of Water in Jupiter.

* Saaiz: A minor angel.

* Saucp: A minor angel.

* Sacp: A minor angel.

* Scmio: A minor angel.

* Siosp: A minor angel.

* Sisp: A minor angel.

* Slgaiol: A sub-angelic Watchtower leader in the North.

* Soniznt: A sub-angelic Watchtower leader in the North.

- T

* Tdim: A minor angel.

* Tdnim: A minor angel.

* Tpau: A minor angel.

* Tplau: A minor angel.

- U

* Uspsn: A minor angel.

* Ussn: A minor angel.

* Utipa: A minor angel.

* Utpa: A minor angel.

- V

* Vaasa: A minor angel.

* Vasa: A minor angel.

* Volxdo Sioda: The Divine name ruling sub-element Earth of Fire.

- X

* Xai: A cacodemon.

* Xcz: A cacodemon.

* Xdz: A cacodemon.

* Xgazd: A minor angel.

* Xgzd: A minor angel.

* Xii: A cacodemon.

* Xnilr: A minor angel.

* Xom: A cacodemon.

* Xoy: A cacodemon.

* Xpa: A cacodemon.

* Xpaxn: A minor angel.

* Xpcn: A minor angel.

* Xrinh: A minor angel.

* Xrnh: A minor angel.

- Z

* Zaabo: A minor angel.

* Zabo: A minor angel.

* Zarnaah: An angelic king, ruling in the North.

* Zarzi: A minor angel.

* Zarzilg: An angelic king, ruling in the East-South-East.

* Zazi: A minor angel.

* Zdaxg: A minor angel.

* Zdxg: A minor angel.

* Zedekiel: The angel of Jupiter.

* Zinggen: An angelic king, ruling in the West-North-West.

* Ziracah: An angelic king, ruling in the South.

* Zirz: A minor angel.

* Ziza: A minor angel.

* Zurchol: An angelic king, ruling in the South-South-East.

- See also

* John Dee

* Edward Kelley



Choronzon (also known as 'Coronzon' or '333') is a demon or devil that originated in writing with the 16th century occultists Edward Kelley and John Dee within the latter's occult system of Enochian magic. In the 20th century he became an important element within the mystical system of Thelema, founded by Aleister Crowley, where he is the Dweller in the Abyss,[citation needed] believed to be the last great obstacle between the adept and enlightenment. Thelemites believe that if he is met with the proper preparation, then his function is to destroy the ego, which allows the adept to move beyond the Abyss of occult cosmology.



* 1 Spelling variations

* 2 Choronzon according to Crowley

* 3 Non-Thelemic views of Choronzon

* 4 Notes

* 5 References

- Spelling variations

Including Crowley's spelling of the name, Choronzon, there appear to be three alternatives. Meric Casaubon states that the name is Coronzon (without an 'h') in his ‘True and Faithful Relation…’, this coincides with the spelling that appears in Dr. John Dee's journals. A third spelling, Coronzom, is listed in Laycock's Enochian dictionary, citing an original manuscript (Cotton XLVI Pt. I, fol. 91a) as the source for the variant.[1]

- Choronzon according to Crowley

Otherwise known as the Demon of Dispersion, Choronzon is described by Crowley as a temporary personification of the raving and inconsistent forces that occupy the Abyss.[citation needed] In this system, Choronzon is given form in evocation only in order that it may be mastered.

Crowley states that he and Victor Benjamin Neuburg evoked Choronzon in the Sahara Desert. In Crowley's account, it is unclear whether Choronzon was invoked into an empty Solomonic triangle while Crowley sat elsewhere, or whether Crowley himself was the medium into which the demon was evoked. Nearly all writers except Lawrence Sutin take him to mean the latter. In the account, Choronzon is described as changing shape, which is read variously as an account of an actual metamorphosis, a subjective impression of Neuburg's, or fabrication on Crowley's part.

The account describes the demon throwing sand over the triangle in order to breach it, following which it attacked Neuburg 'in the form of a naked savage', forcing him to drive it back at the point of a dagger. Crowley's account has been criticised as unreliable, as the relevant original pages are torn from the notebook in which the account was written. This, along with other inconsistencies in the manuscript, has led to speculation that the event was heavily embroidered in order to support Crowley's own belief system. Moreover, according to Arthur Calder-Marshall's The Magic of my Youth, Neuburg gave a quite different account of the event, claiming that he and Crowley evoked the spirit of an Egyptian workman.

Choronzon is deemed to be held in check by the power of the Goddess Babalon, inhabitant of Binah, the third Sephirah of the Tree of Life. Both Choronzon and the Abyss are discussed in Crowley's Confessions (ch. 66):

"The name of the Dweller in the Abyss is Choronzon, but he is not really an individual. The Abyss is empty of being; it is filled with all possible forms, each equally inane, each therefore evil in the only true sense of the word—that is, meaningless but malignant, in so far as it craves to become real. These forms swirl senselessly into haphazard heaps like dust devils, and each such chance aggregation asserts itself to be an individual and shrieks, "I am I!" though aware all the time that its elements have no true bond; so that the slightest disturbance dissipates the delusion just as a horseman, meeting a dust devil, brings it in showers of sand to the earth."[2]

- Non-Thelemic views of Choronzon

In much the same way that Satan has been championed by some of those who object to Christianity, Choronzon has been turned into a positive figure by some iconoclastic occultists, in particular chaos magicians who object to what they see as the stultifying and restrictive dogma of Thelema. Peter Carroll's "Mass of Choronzon"[3] is a ritual with the purpose of casting the energy of one's ego into the universe to effectuate an unknown desire.[4] This, in part, has served as an inspiration for modernised ritual effectuation based on the "333 Current". This is usually purged of astrology, gematria and other obtuse mysticism and uses terminology and symbolism that has been recently invented.

- Notes


Within the mystical system of Thelema, the Abyss is the great gulf or void between the phenomenal world of manifestation and its noumenal source.

This doctrine is extremely difficult to explain; but it corresponds more or less to the gap in thought between the Real, which is ideal, and the Unreal, which is actual. In the Abyss all things exist, indeed, at least in posse, but are without any possible meaning; for they lack the substratum of spiritual Reality. They are appearances without Law. They are thus Insane Delusions.

Now the Abyss being thus the great storehouse of Phenomena, it is the source of all impressions.

—Little Essays Towards Truth, Aleister Crowley

In the Kabbalistic system of Crowley, the Abyss is the 11th (hidden) sephira, Da'ath, which separates the lower sephiroth from the supernals. It represents the fall of man (as in Genesis) from a unified consciousness into a duality between ego and divine nature. The Abyss is guarded by the demon, Choronzon, who represents those parts of one's consciousness that are unwilling or unable to enter the divine.

"Crossing the Abyss" is regarded as a perilous operation, and the most important work of the magician's career. Success confers graduation into the degree, Magister Templi, or "Master of the Temple."

- Recent views and heresies

In connection with the growing occult interest in Chaos magic, some seekers are discovering new meanings for the Abyss as well as a more sensible means of crossing it, or even a downgrading of the value of "crossing" such a moat at all.

One influence relating to this is the idea of resonance with Choronzon which holds that Choronzon was demonized by Crowley, out of a severe phobia of chaos on his part, which made him even change the name of Choronzon from inventor John Dee's spelling, which was Coronzom.[1] Resonants with Choronzon[attribution needed] claim the entity is hostile to those who enter its domain seeking a fight, in which case it may be considered natural that they end up getting one. Adherents of this very new occulture befriend or honour Choronzon instead of subscribing to the notion that it must be conquered "as if it were a Boss in some cosmic video game."[citations needed]

The practice of Effectuation is a very loose system of magick stripped of most mysticisms like astrology and gematria, and focused on methods and means of achievement of "the art of changing reality in accordance with the Will" that are suited to the twenty-first century as opposed to being flavoured with ancient gods and leitmotifs. as well as providing more modernized terms to describe them. It is said that the friends of Choronzon will often get ferried across the "moat around the factory and foundry of all creation" if they treat Choronzon like the boatman of the river Styx and make an offering of friendship to this strange xenodimensional - usually, this will mean allowing it to temporarily possess one's body, since xenodimensionals (angels and demons - without these judgmental names) are all supposedly desirous of having solid form, and so envy the humans for having this form, while they themselves are naught but phantoms.[citations needed]

Adherents of such recently introduced, present-day-oriented systems of dealing with extradimensional phenomena are scattered, but growing in number as their ideas become investigated and experimented with. A recent claim is that Choronzon has been freed from the Abyss and now walks the earth, having been shown love, and thus no longer malevolent, its role is now as a destroyer of entropy. One mythopoieic thread has Choronzon choosing one of his three governers, named Lexarp, to be the new Guardian of the Abyss, and states that although Lexarp is less combative and more serious about his role as guardian, he is also more picky about who he'll ferry across the moat.[citations needed]

- Notes


Enochian is a name often applied to an occult or angelic language recorded in the private journals of Dr. John Dee and his seer Edward Kelley in the late 16th century. The men claimed that it was revealed to them by angels, while some contemporary scholars of magick consider it a constructed language.

Applying the term "Enochian" to the language is a modern convention—not found in Dee's journals. Dee referred to the language as "Angelical", the "Celestial Speech", the "Language of Angels", the "First Language of God-Christ" and the "Holy Language". He sometimes referred to its alphabet as "Adamical" because (according to Dee's Angels) it was used by Adam in Paradise to name all things. Dee also recorded that the Patriarch Enoch had been the last human (before Dee and Kelley) to know the language—thus prompting later scholars to refer to the language and Dee's entire magickal system as "Enochian".



* 1 Dee's Angelical

* 2 Skeptical and linguistic evaluations

* 3 Leo Vinci

* 4 Enochian in popular culture

* 5 See also

* 6 Notes

* 7 References

o 7.1 Primary sources

o 7.2 Books and articles

* 8 External links

- Dee's Angelical

According to Tobias Churton in his book The Golden Builders, the concept of an Angelic or pre-deluge language was common during Dee's time. The importance of it was connected with the idea that if the language of angels could be known then it would be possible to directly interact with them and with the universe through it.

Dee began to allude to his search for knowledge through the angels in 1581 when he mentioned in his personal journals that God had sent "good angels" to communicate directly with his prophets. In 1582 Dee teamed up with the seer Edward Kelley (although there had been at least a couple of others before him)[1]. With Kelley's help as a scryer Dee set out to establish lasting contact with the angels, which resulted among other things in the reception of the Enochian or Angelical language.

According to Dee's journals [2], Angelical was supposed to have been the language God used to create the world, and which was later used by Adam to speak with God and the angels, and to name all things in existence. Adam then lost the language upon his Fall from Paradise, and constructed a form of proto-Hebrew based upon his vague memory of Angelical. This proto-Hebrew, then, was the universal human language until the time of the Confusion of Tongues at the Tower of Babel. After this, all the various human languages were developed, including an even more modified Hebrew (which we know as "Biblical Hebrew"). From the time of Adam to the time of Dee and Kelley, Angelical was hidden from humans with the single exception of the patriarch Enoch—who according to the angels recorded the "Book of Loagaeth" (Speech From God) for humanity. The book was then lost again in the Deluge of Noah.

The angelical language as revealed to Dee and Kelley encompasses a very limited text corpus. Additionally only parts of it come with English translations. The reception of what has become known as Enochian started on March 26 1583, when Kelley reported visions in the crystal of the twenty-one lettered alphabet characteristic of the language. A few days later Kelley started receiving what became the first corpus of texts in the purported Angelic language. This resulted in the book Liber Loagaeth (“Book [of] Speech from God”). The book consists of 49 “calls” or prayers in the Angelic language, but also of 95 great letter tables, each of 49 x 49 letter-filled squares.[3] Unfortunately the angels never bothered translating the texts in this book.

The other and most important set of Enochian texts was received through Kelley about a year later, in Krakow. These are more important since they come with English translations, thus providing the basis for the Enochian vocabulary. The texts comprise 48 poetic verses, which in Dee’s manuscripts are called “Claves Angelicae”, or “Angelic Keys”. The Keys are assigned certain functions within the magical system. Dee was apparently intended to use these Keys to "open the 49 Gates of Wisdom/Understanding" represented by the 49 magic squares in Liber Loagaeth:

I am therefore to instruct and inform you, according to your Doctrine delivered, which is contained in 49 Tables. In 49 voices, or callings: which are the Natural Keys to open those, not 49 but 48 (for one is not to be opened) Gates of Understanding, whereby you shall have knowledge to move every Gate… [4]

But you shall understand that these 19 Calls are the Calls, or entrances into the knowledge of the mystical Tables. Every Table containing one whole leaf, whereunto you need no other circumstances. [5]

While these texts contain most of the vocabulary dozens of further words are found hidden throughout Dee's journals, and thousands of undefined words are contained in the Liber Loagaeth. Marked stylistic differences between the words in Loagaeth and in the Keys have lead some present-day magicians to assume that these represent two different "dialects" of the language [citation needed].

- Skeptical and linguistic evaluations

Skeptics have pointed to this discrepancy between the two revealed sets of Enochian texts as an indication that Enochian is in fact not a consistent language.[6] For instance it has been noted, especially by the Australian linguist Donald Laycock, that the texts in the Loagaeth material show phonetic features that do not generally appear in natural languages. [7] Rather, the features showed are commonly found in instances of glossolalia. This could be indicative of Kelley actually receiving at least this set of texts through the well-known phenomenon of glossolalia.

Building on Laycock’s linguistic analysis skeptics also point out that there are even problems with holding that the texts of the Enochian keys represent a genuine natural language. It is observed that the syntax of the Enochian calls is almost identical with that of English. [8] Also the very scant evidence of Enochian verb declension seems to be quite reminiscent of English – more so than with Semitic languages as Hebrew or Arabic, which one perhaps would have supposed Adam’s pristine language to be closer related to than English.[9] These and other points arguably make the reception of the Enochian language less mysterious and hard to account for than some practitioners of Enochian magic have typically contended.

- Leo Vinci

In 1976, Leo Vinci published a book entitled Gmicalzoma: An Enochian Dictionary.

- Enochian in popular culture

The language has been associated with the Hymn of One, a fictional cult in the popular lonelygirl15 web series.

The title of the track "Faaip de Oiad" on the Tool album Lateralus is Enochian. Tool intended for it to translate to "the voice of God."

The Enochian alphabet is used to represent the Golem language in Terry Pratchett's novels Going Postal and Making Money. In Going Postal it is referred to as a mystic language, said to be spoken by angels.

In Yu-Gi-Oh, the character Dartz wears a pendant with a pentagram and Enochian writing around the rim, which is the symbol of the Orichalcos Stone. The Orichalcos Seal that came from the Stone also has Enochian writing on it's rim. [10]

The Satanic Bible, written by Anton LaVey, lists 19 Enochian "Keys"

Simon R. Green's Nightside series mentions uses of Enochian when referring to angels and speaking to them, though actual Enochian is never used in the books.

Referenced in the movie series "Prophecy" with Christopher Walken as Gabriel.

- See also

* Enochian angels

* Enochian magic

* Occultism

* List of magical terms and traditions

- Notes

1. ^ Deborah Harkness, John Dee's Conversations with Angels, 16-17.

2. ^ Now in various collections of the British Library. See especially Sloane MSS 3188, 3189 and 3191, and Cotton Appendix XLVI. All the above are available in digital scans at :

3. ^ This book is now in British Library MS Sloane 3189.

4. ^ The angel Nalvage, cited in Casaubon ed., A True and Faithful Relation…, p. 77

5. ^ The angel Illemese, cited in Casaubon ed., A True and Faithful Relation…, p. 199)

6. ^ See Donald Laycock, "Enochian: Angelic language or mortal folly?", 19-64 in The Complete Enochian Dictionary. Also Egil Asprem, "'Enochian' Language: A proof of the existence of angels?" in Skepsis (13.12.2006),

7. ^ Laycock, "Enochian: Angelic language or mortal folly?", p.33.

8. ^ Ibid, 43.

9. ^ Ibid.

10. ^

- References

Note: most of these primary sources relate to a version of this entry that was radically rewritten but is still available at

- Primary sources

* Barnstone, Willis, ed. The Other Bible: Ancient Alternative Scriptures. San Francisco: Harper Collins, 1984.

* Dee, John. The Diaries of John Dee. Ed. Edward Fenton. Oxfordshire: Day, 1998.

* John Dee's Library Catalogue. Ed. Roberts, Julian, Andrew G. Watson. London: Bibliographic Society. 1990.

* Causabon, Meric. A True & Faithful Relation of What Passed for Many Years Between Dr. John Dee and Some Spirits. Introduction by Lon Milo Duquette, New York: Magickal Childe, 1992.

* John Dee's Actions with Spirits: 22 December 1581 to 23 May 1583. 2 vols. Ed. Whitby, Christopher. New York: Garland Publishing, 1988.

* Laycock, Donald. The Complete Enochian Dictionary: A Dictionary of the Angelic Language as Revealed to Dr. John Dee and Edward Kelley. Foreword by Lon Milo Duquette, York Beach, ME: Weiser Books 1999.

* Leslau, Wolf. Comparative Dictionary of Ge'ez (Classical Ethiopic): Ge'ez -English / English- Ge'ez with an index of the Semitic roots. Wiesbadan: Otto Harrassowitz. 1991.

* Concise Dictionary of Ge'ez (Classical Ethiopic). Wiesbadan: Otto Harrassowitz. 1989.

* Liber Henoch Æthiopice, ad quinque codicum fidem editus cum variis lectionibus. Ed. Dillmann, A. Ms. 5. Leipzig. 1851.

* Pantheus, Joannes. "Voarchadumia contra alchimiam, ars distincta ab archimia et sophia, cum additionibus, proportinonibus numeris et figuris opportuni." n.d. [1] Gallica – Bibliothèque nationale de France. 1550.

* Trithemius, Johannes. "Steganographia Book One." n.d. [2] (14 December 2002).

* The Seal of Orichalcos ( Yu-Gi-Oh!)

- Books and articles

* Asprem, Egil. "'Enochian' Language: A proof of the existence of angels?" in Skepsis, published 13.12.2006,

* Brooks, Lester. Civilizations of Ancient Africa. New York: Four Winds Press, 1972.

* Harkness, Deborah. John Dee's Conversations with Angels: Cabala, Alchemy, and the End of Nature. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1999.

* Laycock, Donald. "Enochian: Angelic language or mortal folly?", 19-64 in: The Complete Enochian Dictionary, edited by Laycock and Steven Skinner. York Beach, ME: Weiser Books 1999.

* Mandeville, John. The Travels of Sir John Mandeville. Translated by C. W. R. D. Mosley. Harmondsworth, England: Penguin, 1983.

* Phillipson, David. Ancient Ethiopia. London: British Museum Press, 1998.

* Schmidt, Nathaniel. "Traces of Early Acquaintance in Europe with the Book of Enoch." Journal of the American Oriental Society 42 (1922): 44-52.

- External links

* An Enochian Miscellany

* Enochian Linguistics

* Enochian-English dictionary

* Another Enochian-English dictionary

* Enoch and The Day of the End


The Enochian Dictionary

Edited and Proofed by

Fra:. Michael 111


AAF amongst 15

A-AI-OM amoungst us 192

AAIOM amongst 192

AAI amongst 72

AALA placed 26

AAO amongst 42

ABAI stooping 77

ABRAMG prepared 215

ABRAMIG prepared 275

ACAM .7699 402

ADGT can 27

ADNA obedience 66

ADOHI kingdom 101

ADROCH mount 441

AF 19 9

AFFA empty 18

AG none 14

ALAR settled 120

ALDI gathering 78

ALDON gird (up) 98

ALI successively 74

A 6 6

ALLAR bind 128

A-M-IPZI (i) fastened 234

AMIRAN yourselves 312

AMMA cursed 192

ANANAEL secret wisdom 136

ANGELARD thoughts 192

APILA liveth 89

AQLO in 84

AR that 106

AS was 13

ATH works 16

ATRAAH girdles 128

AVAVAGO thunders 196

A 6 6

AVAVAGO thunders 196

AVINY millstones 246

AZIAGIAR harvest 255

AZIAZOR likeness 220


BABAGE south 40

BABALON wicked 110

BAEOUIB name righteousness 186

BAGHIE fury 90

BAGLE for 37

BAHAL cried 26

BALIE salt 89

BALIT just 88

BALTIM justice 178

BALTOH righteous 59

BALT justice 28

BALTOHA righteousness 65

BALTOH righteousness 59

BALZARG stewards 142

BASGIM day 176

BAZM mid-day 110

BIA (?) 71

BIAH stand 72

BIALO voice 109

BI-EN unto my voice 125

BIGLIAD comforter 151

BLANS harboured 76

BLIARD comfort 183

BLIAR comfort 179

BLIOR comforters 203

BLIORA comfort 209

BLIORAX comfort 609

BLIORS comfort 210

BLIORT comfort 212

BOGPA reigneth 58

BOLP be thou 52

BRANSG guard 176

BRGDO sleep 147

BRIN have 215

BRINT hast 224

BRINTS truth 231

B-RI-TA have talked 180

BUSD glory 86

BUSDIR glory 246

BUTMON mouth 254

BUTMONI mouths 314


CAB rod 311

CA-CACOM flourish 1032

CACRG until 714

CAFAFAM abiding 414

CAMLIAX spake 870

CANAL workmen (?) 370

CAOSGA earth 357

CAOSG earth 351

CAOSGI earth 411

CAOSGIN earth 461

CAOSGO earth 381

CAOSGON earth 431

CAPIMALI successively 539

CAPIMAON numbers of time 551

CAP-MI power 465

CARBAF sink 420

CASARM made 509

(e)CA therefore 306

CASARMA whom 515

CASARMAN under 565

CASARMG who 517

CASARMI (under) whom 569

CHIA are 367

CHILDAO diamonds 409

CHIRLAN rejoiceth 525

CHIS are 368

CHISA are 374

CHIS-GE arenot 386

CHIS are 368

CHISO shall 398

CIAL 29996 374

CIAOFI terror 459

CICLE mysteries 678

CICLES mysteries 685

CINXIR mingles 970

CNILA blood 424

COCASB ages (time) 648

COCASG times 651

COLLAL sleeves 360

COMMAH trussed 517

COMO window 450

COMSELHA circle 452

CONST thunders 396

CORAXO thunders 866

CORMFA numbers 529

CORMF number 523

CORMP numbered 559

CORS such 437

C unto 300

C 4 300

CORSI such 497

CRIP but 469

CRO-OD-ZI second beginning 533

CRO-ODZI beginning 533

CRP but 409

C ye 300

C with 300


D into 4

D third 4

DAOX 5678 440

DARBS obey 122

DA there 10

DARG 6739 118

DARSAR wherefore 223

DAX loins 410

DAZIS heads 86

DAZIZ heads 88

DE your 14

DIU angle (?) 134

DLUGA giving 96

DLUGAM given 186

DLUGAR giving 196

DOALIM sin 198

DODS vexing 45

DODSEH vexation 56

DO-O-A-IN his name 180

DO-O-A-IP in the name 139

DO-O-I-A in the name 130

DORPHA looked 150

DORPHAL looking 158

DOSIG night 109

DRILPA great 187

DRILPA great 187

DRILPI greater (than) 241

DRIX bring 564

DROLN any 192

DR which 104

DS which 11


ECRIN praise 520

ED-NAS receivers 77

EFAFAFE vial 41

EF visit (us) 13

ELO first 48

EL first 18

EM nine 100

EMETGIS seal 194

EMNA herein 156

EMOD 8763 134

ENAY (lord?) (hath?) 126

ENAY lord 126

EOLIS making 115

EOPHAN lamentation 106

ERAN 6332 166

ERM with 200

E first 10

ETHAMZA covered 131

ETHARZI peace 195


F visit 3

FAAIP voices 84

FABOAN poison 100

FAFEN from 72

FAFEN train 72

FAONTS dwelling 105

FARZM lifted 208


GAH spirits

GAH glory

GA 31 14

G-CHIS-GE are not 394

GE 18

GEH art 19

GE-IAD lord 88

GIGIPAH breath 152

GIVI stronger 198

GIZYAX earthquakes 543

G-MACALZA power or presence 433

GNAY doth 124

GNETAAB governments 94

GNONP garnished 147

GOHE saith 49

GOHIA we say 105

GOHO saith 69

GOHOLOR lift 207

GOHOL saying 77

GOHON have spoken 119

GOHUS (I) say 176

GONO faith 118

GRAA moon 120

G with (?) 8

GROSB sting 150


HAMI creatures 157

HARG planted 115

HE song 11

HOATH worshipper 47

HOLDO groaned 73

HOL-Q measureth 79

HOLQ measured 79

HOM liveth 121

HOMIL true 189

HOMIN age 231

HUBAR lamps 182

HUBARDO lanterns 216


I is 60

IADPIL to him 147

IAD god 70

IAIADIX honor 596

IA-IAL conclude 140

IAIDA the highest 136

IA-IDON all powerful 210

IALPIR flames 243

IALPON burn 163

IALPOR flaming 213

IAL-PRG burning flames 191

IAL-PRT flame 192

IALPRT flame 192

IAOD beginning 100

IEHUSOZ mercies 187

ILONON branches 228

ILS thou 75

ILSI thee 135

IL thy 68

IM-VA-MAR apply 422

IN mine 110

INSI walkest 177

IO-IAD (that liveth forever) 160

IPAM beginning 165

IPAMIS end 232

I is 60

IP shall 69

IP not 69

IRGIL how many 236

ISRO promise 197

I-ZA-ZAZ have framed(?) 99

I in 60

IZIZOP (highest) vessels 177

I is 60

I all 60

I they 60


LADNAH ark of knowledge 75

LAIAD secrets 84

LAP for 23

LAP things 23

LA first 14

LAP i am 23

LARAG neither 128

LAS rich 21

LI the 68

LIMLAL treasure 180

LOHOLO shine 107

LOLCIS buckles 413

LONCHO fall 419

LONDOH kingdoms 123

LONSA everyone 101

LONSHIN (their) power 206

LONSHI power 156

LORSLQ flowers 193

L-O the first 38

LRING stir 226

LU nor 78

L first 8

LUCAL north 392

LUCIFTIAN brightness 566

LU-LA be 92

LUSD feet 89

L one 8

L first 8

L 5 8

LUSDA feet 95

LUSDAN feet 145

LUSDI feet 149


MAASI laidup 169

MABZA robe 116

MAD your god 100

MADRID iniquity 264

MALPIRG fires 281

MALPRG firey 221

MANIN mind 256

MA-OF-FAS not to be measured 145

MAPM 9636 195

MATB thousand 110

MATORB echoing 240

MIAM continuance 246

MIAN 3663 206

MICALP mightier 473

MICALZO mighty 503 _ pgbr _

_ pgbr _

MICA-OLZ mighty 503

MICAOLZ mighty 503

MICMA behold 546

MIINOAG corners 304

MIR torment 250

MIRC upon 550

MOLVI surges 258

MOMAO crown 246

MOMAR crowned 316

MOM moss 210

MONONS heart 257

MOSPLEH horns 155

MOZ joy 129


NA-NA-E-EL pouring 140

NANBA thorns 117

NAPEA two-edge sword 81

NAPEAI swords 141

NAZARTH pillars (gladness) 181

NAZAVABH hyacinthine 153

NAZPS sword 81

NETAAB government 86

NIDALI sounds (mighty) 188

NIIS come 177

NIISO come (away) 207

NIISO come 207

NI 8 110

NOAN become 136

NOAR become 186

NOAS become 93

NOBLOH palms 124

NOCO servent 410

NOIB yea 145

NOMIG even 238

NONCI you 490

NONCP place 439

NOQOD (thy) servent 154

NOQODI ministers 214

NOQOL servents 158

NOR-MOLAP sons of men 323

NOROMI sons 360

NOR-QUASAHI sons of pleasure 370

NORZ six 189

NOTHOA garments (midst?) 126


OADO weave 70

OALI placed 104

OANIO amoment (24thpart) 176

OBELISONG deliverers 208

OBLOC garland 373

OBOLEH garments 84

OBZA half 50

OB 28 35

OD and 34

ODO open 64

OE-CRIMI sing praises 650

OHIO woe 121

OHORELA law 185

OI this 90

OI thatis 90

OIAD just 100

OIAD (of) god 100

OL made you 38

OLANI two times 154

OLLOG men 84

OLLOR man 176

OLN made 88

OL of 38

OLORA man 174

OL 24 38

OLPRT light 156

OM understand 120

OMAX know (great) 526

O-MICAOLZ bemighty 533

ON in your 80

ONDOH kingdoms 115

OOAIN amongst 176

OOANOAN eyes 202

OOAONA eyes 152

OOGE chamber 78

OP 22 39

OROCH under 461

ORRI stone 290

ORSBA drunken 148

ORSCOR dryness 567

OS twelve 37

OTHIL seat 108

OVOARS center 243

OVOF magnified 133

OX 26 430

OXEX vomit 840

OXIAYAL mighty (seat) 570

OZAZM make (me) 144

OZIEN hands 159

OZOL hands 77

OZONGON winds 207

O five(5) 30


PA-AOX remain in 451

PAGE rest 33

PAMBT (to)me 119

PANPIR life 234

PAPNOR remembrance 204

PARACLEDA wedding 449

PARADIAL dwellings 199

PARADIZ virgins 194

PARM run 205

PAR in them 115

PASHS children 30

PATRALX rock 538

P-D thirty-three(33) 13

PEAB oak 30

PEOAL 69636 63


PIAMOL righteousness 203

PIAP balance 84

PIDIAI marble 199

PILAH moreover 84

PILD continually 81

PIL firmament 77

PIR holy ones 169

PIRIPSOL brightness 283

PIRIPSON heaven 325

PI places 69

PLAPLI partakers 100

PLOSI as many 114

POAMAL palace 149

POILP divided 116

PRGE fire 127

PRGEL fire 135

PUGO unto 117

PU-IM sharp sickles 229

P of 9

P 8 9


Q or 40

Q content 40

QA-A-AN your creation 108

QAADA the creator 62

QAAL creator 60

QAAS creation 59

QAA creation 52

QANIS olives 163

QUAR 1636 216

QUI-I-N wherein the cre 280

QUI-IN wherein 280


RAAS east 119

RAASY east 179

RACLIR weeping 574

REST-EL praise him 144

RIOR widow 290

RIT mercy 169

ROR sun 230

RSAM admiration 203


SAID wonder

SAISCH brothers

SALBROX sulphur 556

SALMAN house 167

SAMVELG righteous 199

SAPAH sounds 29

SIAION temple 213

SIATRIS scorpions 249

SOBA whose 48

SOBAM whom 138

SOBCA they whose 348

SOBOL whose 80

SOBOLN west 130

SOBRA whose 148

SOLPETH hearken 74

SONF reign 90

S fourth (?) 7


TA as 15

TABA to govern 26

TABAAN governor 82

TALHO cups 54

TASTAX (going) before 437

TATAN wormwood 80

TA-VI-LIOD and second 247

TAXS 7336 422

TELOCH death 358

THIL seat 78

THILD seats 82

THILN seats 128

TIBIBP sorrow 148

TLIOB creatures 112

TOATAR hearken 160

TOH triumph 40

TOLTORG earth 194

TOL with 47

TOL on 47

TOL all 47

TORGI creatures 207

TORZU arise 218

TORZUL rise 226

TOX him 439

TRANAN marrow 221

TRIAN shall 225

TRINT sit 228

TROF building 142

TURBS beauty 191

T also 9

T it 9


U-I-V third (angle) 200

UNAL these 134

URAN notsee 226


VABZIR eagle 250

VAOAN truth 162

VAUL work 154

VAUN (work?) 196

VCIM frown not 520

VEP flame 89

VGEAR strength 194

VGEG strong 96

V-GE-GI v-ge-gi 156

VI second 130

VIRG nests 238

VI-VI-LV second angle 338

VIV second 200

VLCININA happy 604

VLS ends 85

V-MA-DEA strong towers 186

VMD called 164

VMPLIF strength 240

VNALAH skirts 141

VNAL these 134

VND-L the rest 132

VNIGLAG decend 210

VNIG requires 188

VNPH anger 130

VOHIM hundred 251

VONPH wrath 160

VONPHO wrath 190

VONSARG unto 271

VORS over 207

VOVIN dragon 280

VOVINA (the) dragon 286

VPAAH wings 92

VPAAHI wings 152

VRAN elders 226

VRBS beautified 182

V the 70

VRELP seer 197

VX 42 470


YOLCI bring 458

YORB roar 195


Z they 9

ZACAM moved 411

ZACARE move 431

ZACAR move 421

ZAMRAN show 261

ZAR courses 115

ZIEN hands 129

ZILDAR flew 187

ZILODARP conquest 226

ZIMII have entered 279

ZIMZ vestures 168

ZIN waters 119

ZIRDO i am 203

ZIR him 169

ZIR i am 169

ZIRDO servent 203

ZIRE lord 179

ZIRN wonders 219

ZIROM were 289

ZIXLAY stir 543

ZIZOP vessels 117

ZLIDA water 87

ZNRZA sware 174

Z-Ol hands 39

ZOMD midst 133

ZONAC apparelled 395

ZONG winds 97

ZONRENSG delivered 264

ZORGE friendly 157

ZUMVI seas 299


Enochian magic is a system of ceremonial magic based on the evocation and commanding of various spirits. It is based on the 16th century writings of Dr. John Dee and Edward Kelley, who claimed that their information was delivered to them directly by various angels. Dee's journals contained the Enochian script, and the table of correspondences that goes with it. It claims to embrace secrets contained within the apocryphal Book of Enoch.



* 1 History

o 1.1 Origins

o 1.2 Rediscovery

o 1.3 Enochian magic today

* 2 In popular culture

* 3 See also

* 4 External links

- History

- Origins

Dee and Kelley claim they received these instructions from angels and wrote them down. This account is taken at face value by most Enochian occultists. However, some of them have pointed out remarkable similarities to earlier grimoiric texts such as the Heptameron known to Dee.[citation needed] Doubts surrounding Kelley in particular have led many non-occultists to the assumption the whole system was originally a fraud devised by Kelley in order to receive more financial support from Dee. The system claims to relate to secrets contained within the apocryphal Book of Enoch.

- Rediscovery

It is not quite clear how much of Enochian magic was put to use by Dee and Kelley. However, rediscovery of Enochian magic by the Samuel Liddell MacGregor Mathers of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn has sparked remarkable publicity for it in modern occultism. Enochian as an operative system is difficult to reconstruct based upon the Sloane manuscripts, but contemporary occult organizations have attempted to make it usable. The Golden Dawn was the first, but their knowledge was based upon only one of Dee's diaries and their planetary, elemental, or zodiacal attributions are unfounded.

One facet of the rediscovery is Enochian chess, a four handed variant of the game played in the Golden Dawn in Mather's time and revived by New Zealand Golden Dawn members and chess players in the late Twentieth Century.

Aleister Crowley, who worked with, and wrote about, Enochian magic extensively, has contributed much to its comparatively widespread use today. His first work on the topic was his Liber Chanokh, a walkthrough to decipher some elements of this system, but his attention was particularly focused upon the Calls of the Aethyrs. His visions from these calls formed a document called The Vision and the Voice, also known as Liber 418.

- Enochian magic today

Compared to other theories of magic, Enochian magic is strikingly more complex and difficult to understand. Also, parts of the original manuscripts written by Dee have been lost, mainly due to a fire in his house after his death, thus key parts of the system are missing. This has allowed numerous interpretations to arise, some of which have solidified into schools of thought with individual bodies of interpretative literature. Almost all schools agree, however, in that Enochian magic is a particularly powerful and dangerous form of magic.[citation needed]

Some practitioners hold that Enochian magic is inherently destructive to the magician.[attribution needed] In particular, its use is forbidden for members of the Builders of the Adytum and Servants of the Light.[citation needed]

In 1969, Anton LaVey published The Satanic Bible, which included a section consisting of dark reinterpretations of the 19 Enochian Keys, presented in both English and Enochian transliterated to Latin characters.

- In popular culture

Industrial band Penal Colony released a song and accompanying video named "Freemasons of Enochian Magick".

- See also

* Magic

* Occultism

* Mysticism

- External links

* History of Enochian Magick

* Crowley, Aleister, Liber LXXXIV vel Chanokh (PDF)

* Rowe, Benjamin, Enochian Magic Reference (PDF)


Enochian chess is a four-player chess variant, similar to Chaturaji, associated with the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn. The name comes from the Enochian system of magic of Dr. John Dee (magus and astrologer to Queen Elizabeth I), which was later adapted by Victorian members of the Golden Dawn into "a complete system of training and initiation." Enochian Chess was originally taught to candidates only after having reached the grade of Adeptus Minor, and requires of the student a reasonable grounding in the Outer Order knowledge of the Golden Dawn.

Enochian or 'Rosicrucian' Chess provides a complete method of self-initiation into the Western mystery tradition. The boards are "flashing tablets"; the pieces are moveable images of Egyptian gods and goddesses. The playing of Enochian Chess constitutes the Great Work and is intended to help the practitioner "ground the Limitless Light". The adept seeks to balance their personality and inner poise, allowing the magician to "direct the forces of nature". This complete-in-itself system of magic incorporates the entire outer order knowledge of Mather's Golden Dawn.

Enochian Chess has active properties - it purports to change the world - not just to describe it or fatalistically predict. The operation of Enochian Chess is experienced by the Questioner directly as well as through a medium or interpreter.

It is played on any one of four boards, Earth, Air, Fire or Water, each board representing a Qabalistic world (Assiah, Yetzirah, Briah or Atziluth). The four sides each have five pieces (Egyptian Gods and Goddesses, King, Queen, Knight, Bishop or Ship, and Rook) and four pawns (the Canopic Gods, Sons of Horus). The four players are in two teams similar to bridge, with the Questioner controlling the first moving side, and placing the Ptah piece (a marker or catalyst in the game) on the square representing the question of the divination.

Dice are thrown to select a piece to move, using a formula drawn from Tetragrammaton YHVH and the Enochian Watchtowers. The game ends with success (a Yes or favourable answer) or a loss (no, or unfavourable reading) through double-checkmate or a check while the King is on the Ptah square. Each move tells of events or information relevant to the question.

The game is available either in software or traditional board format.

- External Links


~The hill Cumorah (also called Mormon Hill or Ramah) is a place described in the Book of Mormon where approximately two hundred fifty thousand Nephite soldiers were killed in a final battle with the Lamanites, and where centuries earlier, the last battle of the Jaredites took place which destroyed their civilization.

Cumorah is also a name for a drumlin near Joseph Smith Jr.'s home in Manchester, New York where Smith said he found a set of golden plates which he translated and published as the Book of Mormon.~


In the Book of Mormon, Cumorah is mentioned in six verses, five in Chapter 6 and one in Chapter 8 of the Book of Mormon. According to the Book of Mormon, Mormon is the caretaker of the record of his people. His people, called the Nephites, were near to being destroyed by the Lamanites who had had many previous wars with the Nephites. Mormon wrote to the leader of the Lamanites to ask that he may gather his "people unto the land of Cumorah, by a hill which was called Cumorah, and there we could give them battle."[1]

The leader of the Lamanites agreed, and all of the Nephites gathered together, including their women and children. Mormon wrote, "And when three hundred and eighty and four years had passed away [since the sign of the birth of Christ], we had gathered in all the remainder of our people unto the land of Cumorah."[2] Mormon then hid all of the records of his people in the hill, except for the plates that he was currently writing on, which he gave to his son Moroni.[3]

The Lamanites then attacked the Nephites, who were led by twenty-three men each with ten-thousand men under their command.[4] After the battle was finished, "even all my people, save it were those twenty and four who were with me", except for those who fled to the south or defected to the Lamanites.[5] The usage of "ten-thousand men" in relation to those who were killed may or may not have included the women and children.

Mormon then records his mourning for his people and a last message to those who will read his record later, then again turns the records over to his son Moroni. Moroni records, "after the great and tremendous battle at Cumorah, behold, the Nephites who had escaped into the country southward were hunted by the Lamanites, until they were all destroyed. And my father also was killed by them, and I even remain alone to write the sad tale of the destruction of my people."[6]

- Jaredites

This hill known as "Cumorah" among the Nephites was called "Shem" and "Ramah" by the Jaredites:

In the Book of Mormon, during the time of the Book of Alma, this land (of Cumorah) was part of the land of Desolation, "the land which had been peopled and been destroyed, of whose bones we have spoken". This land is identified as being north of the land of Zarahemla.[7]

Moroni lived several years after recording the destruction of his people. He translated and abridged the plates which were the record of the Jaredites as the Book of Ether on to the plates that he was keeping. During this process, he wrote, "Omer ... passed by the hill of cShim, and came over by the place dwhere the Nephites were destroyed,"[8] and "... it came to pass that the army of Coriantumr did pitch their tents by the hill Ramah; and it was that same hill where my father Mormon did hide up the records unto the Lord, which were sacred."[9] These pasages identified the hill Cumorah as the same hill where the Jaredites had fought their final battle.

- Cerro Vigia

LDS scholars have proposed the "Cerro Vigia" (Coordinates: [show location on an interactive map] 18.55 North, 95.1833 West) in Tabasco, Mexico, as the hill Cumorah in the Book of Mormon for a variety of reasons. John L. Sorenson listed 15 cultural criteria (based on contextual clues from the text of the Book of Mormon) for the hill Cumorah. They are: cities, towers, agriculture, metallurgy, formal political states, organized religion, idolatry, crafts, trade, writing, weaponry, astronomy, calendar systems, cement, and wheels. He says that the Hill in New York at least partly fits four of these requirements while the "Cerro Vigia" meets all of them.[10]

And it came to pass that we did march forth to the land of Cumorah, and we did pitch our tents around about the hill Cumorah; and it was in a land of many waters, rivers, and fountains; and here we had hope to gain advantage over the Lamanites. - Mormon 6:4 ~


There has been discussion within the Mormonism movement about whether the hill in New York state is the same as the place mentioned in the Book of Mormon, or if the hill was only given the same name in order to honor it as the hiding place of the plates when Smith found them. Latter Day Saints believe that Joseph Smith, Jr. was instructed by the angel to return the Golden Plates to the angel Moroni after translating them.

At least 10 different secondhand accounts refer to a certain cave and events that occurred there.[11] According to one of these accounts by Brigham Young, Smith and Oliver Cowdery went to the hill which opened up and they walked into a cave where there was a large and spacious room filled with wagon loads of metallic plates. The Sword of Laban was on a large table upon which Smith placed the golden plates.[12] The wording of this account may imply that the events described occurred in a vision rather than physically,[13] and because archaeological evidence doesn't appear to support the theory that the events described in the Book of Mormon occurred near the hill Cumorah in New York state many have accordingly interpreted this account as a vision. The large room, which Smith and Cowdery described as being "swallowed up" by the hill,[citation needed] with records and artifacts has not yet been found at this hill in New York state.~

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